Chapter 9: VOCABULARY
- quack :: charlatan; impostor
- quadruped :: four-footed animal
- quaff :: drink with relish
- quagmire :: bog; marsh
- quail :: cower; lose heart
- qualms :: misgivings
- quandary :: dilemma
- quarantine :: isolation of person or ship to prevent spread of infection
- quay :: dock; landing place
- queasy :: easily nauseated; squeamish
- quell :: put down; quiet
- querulous :: fretful; whining
- qui vie :: wide awake; expectant
- quibble :: equivocate; play on words
- quiescent :: at rest; dormant
- quietude :: tranquillity
- quintessence :: purest and highest embodiment
- quip :: taunt
- quirk :: startling twist; caprice
- quixotic :: idealistic but impractical
- quizzical :: bantering; comical; humorously serious
- quorum :: number of mem
- rabid :: like a fanatic; furious
- ragamuffin :: person wearing tattered clothes
- ramification :: branching out; subdivision
- ramify :: divide into branches or subdivisions
- ramp :: slope; inclined plane
- rampant :: rearing up on hind legs; unrestrained
- rampart :: defensive mound of earth
- rancid :: having the odor of stale fat
- rancor :: bitterness; hatred
- rant :: rave; speak bombastically
- rapacious :: excessively grasping; plundering
- rapprochement :: reconciliation
- rarefied :: made less dense of a gas
- ratiocination :: reasoning; act of drawing conclusions from premises
- rationalization :: bringing into conformity with reason
- rationalize :: reason; justify an improper act
- raucous :: harsh and shrill
- ravage :: plunder; despoil
- ravening :: rapacious; seeking prey
- ravenous :: extremely hungry
- raze :: destroy completely
- reactionary :: recoiling from progress; retrograde
- realm :: kingdom; sphere
- rebate :: discount
- recalcitrant :: obstinately stubborn
- recant :: repudiate; withdraw previous statement
- recapitulate :: summarize
- recession :: withdrawal; retreat
- recherché :: choice, sought after; rare
- recidivism :: habitual return to crime
- recipient :: receiver
- reciprocal :: mutual; exchangeable; interacting
- reciprocate :: repay in kind
- recluse :: hermit
- reconcile :: make friendly after quarrel; correct inconsistencies
- recondite :: abstruse; profound; secret
- reconnaissance :: survey of enemy by soldiers; reconnoitering
- recourse :: resorting to help when in trouble
- recreant :: coward; betrayer of faith
- recrimination :: countercharges
- recrudescence :: reopening of a wound or sore
- rectify :: correct
- rectitude :: uprightness
- recumbent :: reclining; lying down completely or in part
- recuperate :: recover
- recurrent :: occurring again and again
- recusant :: person who refuses to comply
- redolent :: fragrant; odorous; suggestive of an odor
- redoubtable :: formidable; causing fear
- redress :: remedy; compensation
- redundant :: superfluous; excessively wordy; repetitious
- reek :: emit odor
- refection :: slight refreshment
- refectory :: dinning hall
- refraction :: bending of a ray of light
- refractory :: stubborn; unmanageable
- refulgent :: radiant
- refurbish :: renovate; make bright by polishing
- refutation :: disproof of opponents' arguments
- regal :: royal
- regale :: entertain
- regatta :: boat or yacht race
- regeneration :: spiritual rebirth
- regime :: method or system of government
- regimen :: prescribed diet and habits
- rehabilitate :: restore to proper condition
- reimburse :: repay
- reiterate :: repeat
- rejuvenate :: make young again
- relegate :: banish; consign to inferior position
- relevancy :: pertinence; reference to the case in hand
- relinquish :: abandon
- relish :: savor; enjoy
- remediable :: reparable
- remedial :: curative; corrective
- reminiscence :: recollection
- remiss :: negligent
- remnant :: remainder
- remonstrate :: protest
- remove from a grave
- remunerative :: compensating; rewarding
- rend :: split; tear apart
- render :: deliver; provide; represent
- rendezvous :: meeting place
- rendition :: translation; artistic interpretation of a song, etc.
- renegade :: deserter; apostate
- renounce :: abandon; discontinue; disown; repudiate
- renovate :: restore to good condition; renew
- renunciation :: giving up; renouncing
- reparable :: capable of being repaired
- reparation :: amends; compensation
- repartee :: clever reply
- repellent :: driving away; unattractive
- repercussion :: rebound; reverberation; reaction
- repertoire :: list of works of music, drama, etc., a performer is prepared to presen
- replenish :: fill up again
- replete :: filled to capacity; abundantly supplied
- replica :: copy
- repository :: storehouse
- reprehensible :: deserving blame
- reprieve :: temporary stay
- reprimand :: reprove severely
- reprisal :: retaliation
- reprobate :: person hardened in sin, devoid of a sense of decency
- reprobation :: severe disapproval
- reprove :: censure; rebuke
- repudiate :: disown; disavow
- repugnance :: loathing
- requiem :: mass for the dead; dirge
- requisite :: necessary requirement
- requite :: repay; revenge
- rescind :: cancel
- rescission :: abrogation; annulment
- residue :: remainder; balance
- resilient :: elastic; having the power of springing back
- resonant :: echoing; resounding; possessing resonance
- respite :: delay in punishment; interval of relief; rest
- resplendent :: brilliant; lustrous
- restitution :: reparation; indemnification
- restive :: unmanageable; fretting under control
- resurgent :: rising again after defeat, etc.
- resuscitate :: revive
- retaliate :: repay in kind usually for bad treatment
- retentive :: holding; having a good memory
- reticence :: reserve; uncommunicativeness; inclination to be silent
- reticulated :: covered with a network; having the appearance of a mesh
- retinue :: following; attendants
- retraction :: withdrawal
- retribution :: vengeance; compensation; punishment for offenses
- retrieve :: recover; find and bring in
- retroactive :: of a law which dates back to a period before its enactment
- retrograde :: going backwards; degenerating
- revelry :: boisterous merrymaking
- reverberate :: echo; resound
- reverie :: daydream; musing
- revile :: slander; vilify
- revulsion :: sudden violent change of feeling; reaction
- rhetoric :: art of effective communication; insincere language
- rheumy :: pertaining to a discharge from nose and eyes
- ribald :: wanton; profane
- rife :: abundant; current
- rift :: opening; break
- rigor :: severity
- rime :: white frost
- risible :: inclined to laugh; ludicrous
- risqué :: verging upon the improper; off-color
- roan :: brown mixed with gray or white
- robust :: vigorous; strong
- rococo :: ornate; highly decorated
- rood :: crucifix
- roseate :: rosy; optimistic
- rossify :: change or harden into bone
- rostrum :: platform for speech-making; pulpit
- rote :: repetition
- rotunda :: circular building or hall covered with a dome
- rotundity :: roundness; sonorousness of speech
- rubble :: fragments
- rubicund :: having a healthy reddish color; ruddy; florid
- ruddy :: reddish; healthy-looking
- rudimentary :: not developed; elementary
- rueful :: regretful; sorrowful; dejected
- ruminate :: chew the cud; ponder
- rummage :: ransack; thoroughly search
- ruse :: trick; stratagem
- rustic :: pertaining to country people; uncouth
- rusticate :: banish to the country; dwell in the country
- ruthless :: pitiless
- sacerdotal :: priestly
- sacrilegious :: desecrating; profane
- sacrosanct :: most sacred; inviolable
- sadistic :: inclined to cruelty
- saffron :: orange-colored; colored like the autumn crocus
- saga :: Scandinavian myth; any legend
- sagacious :: keen; shrewd; having insight
- salient :: prominent
- saline :: salty
- sallow :: yellowish; sickly in color
- saltatory :: relating to leaping
- salubrious :: healthful
- salutary :: tending to improve; beneficial; wholesome
- salvage :: rescue from loss
- salver :: tray
- sanctimonious :: displaying ostentatious or hypocritical devoutness
- sangfroid :: coolness in a trying situation
- sanguinary :: bloody
- sanguine :: cheerful; hopeful
- sapid :: savory; tasty; relishable
- sapient :: wise; shrewd
- sarcasm to expose folly, vice, etc.
- sarcophagus :: stone coffin, often highly decorated
- sardonic :: disdainful; sarcastic; cynical
- sartorial :: pertaining to tailors
- sate :: satisfy to the full; cloy
- satellite :: small body revolving around a larger one
- satiate :: surfeit; satisfy fully
- satiety :: condition of being crammed full; glutted state; repletion
- satire :: use of ridicule, irony, or
- satrap :: petty ruler working for a
- saturate :: soak
- saturnine :: gloomy
- satyr :: half-human, half-bestial being in the court of Dionysos
- saunter :: stroll slowly
- savant :: scholar
- savoir faire :: tact; poise; sophistication
- savor :: have a distinctive flavor, smell, or quality
- scarify :: make slight incisions in; scratch
- scavenger :: collector and disposer of refuse; animal that devours carrion
- schism :: division; split
- scintilla :: shred; least bit
- scintillate :: sparkle; flash
- sciolism :: quackery; superficial information
- scion :: offspring
- scourge :: lash; whip; severe punishment
- screed :: long, tiresome harangue
- scrupulous :: conscientious; extremely thorough
- scullion :: menial kitchen worker
- scurrilous :: obscene; indecent
- scuttle :: sink
- sebaceous :: oily; fatty
- secession :: withdrawal
- secular :: worldly; not pertaining to church matters; temporal
- sedate :: composed; grave
- sedentary :: requiring sitting
- sedulous :: diligent
- seethe :: be disturbed; boil
- seine :: net for catching fish
- semblance :: outward appearance; guise
- senescence :: state of growing old
- senility :: old age; feeblemindedness of old age
- sensual :: devoted to the pleasures of the senses; carnal; voluptuous
- sensuous :: pertaining to the physical senses; operating through the senses
- sententious :: terse; concise; aphoristic
- septic :: putrid; producing putrefaction
- sepulcher :: tomb
- sequacious :: eager to follow; ductile
- sequester :: retire from public life; segregate; seclude
- seraph :: high-ranking, six-winged angel
- serendipity :: gift for finding valuable things not searched for
- serenity :: calmness; placidity
- serrated :: having a saw-toothed edge
- serried :: standing shoulder to shoulder; crowded
- servile :: slavish; cringing
- serving good food
- severance :: division; partition; separation
- shackle :: chain; fetter
- shambles :: slaughterhouse; scene of carnage
- sheaf :: bundle of stalks of grain; any bundle of things tied together
- sheathe :: place into a case
- sherbet :: flavored dessert ice
- shibboleth :: watchword; slogan
- shimmer :: glimmer intermittently
- shoal :: shallow place
- shoddy :: sham; not genuine; inferior
- sibylline :: prophetic; oracular
- sidereal :: relating to the stars
- silt :: sediment deposited by running water
- simian :: monkeylike
- simile :: comparison of one thing with another, using the word like or as
- similitude :: similitude; using comparisons such as similes, etc.
- simpering :: smirking
- simulate :: feign
- sinecure :: well-paid position with little responsibility
- sinister :: evil
- sinuous :: winding; bending in and out; not morally honest
- sirocco :: warm, sultry wind blown Africa to southern Europe
- skeptic :: doubter
- skimp :: provide scantily; live very economically
- skittish :: lively; frisky
- skulk :: move furtively and secretly
- slake :: quench; sate
- slander :: defamation; utterance o false and malicious statements
- slattern :: untidy or slovenly person
- sleazy :: flimsy; unsubstantial
- sleight :: dexterity
- slither :: slip or slide
- sloth :: laziness
- slough :: cast off
- slovenly :: untidy; careless in work habits
- sluggard :: lazy person
- sluice :: artificial channel for directing or controlling the flow of water
- smattering :: slight knowledge
- sobriety :: soberness
- sobriquet :: nickname
- sojourn :: temporary stay
- solace :: comfort in trouble
- solecism :: construction that is flagrantly incorrect grammatically
- solicitous :: worried; concerned
- soliloquy :: talking to oneself
- solstice :: point at which the sun is farthest from the equator
- solvent :: able to pay all debts
- somatic :: pertaining to the body; physical
- something different
- somnambulist :: sleepwalker
- somnolent :: half asleep
- sonorous :: resonant
- sophist :: teacher of philosophy; quibbler; employer of fallacious reasoning
- sophistication :: artificiality; unnaturalness; act of employing sophistry in reasoning
- sophomoric :: immature; shallow
- soporific :: sleep producer
- soupcon :: suggestion; hint; taste
- spangle :: small metallic piece sewn to clothing for ornamentation
- spasmodic :: fitful; periodic
- spate :: sudden flood
- spatial :: relating to space
- spatula :: broad-bladed instrument used for spreading or mixing
- spawn :: lay eggs
- specious :: seemingly reasonable but incorrect
- spectral :: ghostly
- spectrum :: colored band produced when beam of light passes through a prism
- splenetic :: spiteful; irritable; peevish
- spoliation :: pillaging; depredation
- spoonerism :: accidental transposition of sounds in successive words
- sporadic :: occurring irregularly
- sportive :: playful
- spume :: froth; foam
- spurious :: false; counterfeit
- squalid :: dirty; neglected; poor
- squander :: waste
- staccato :: played in an abrupt manner; marked by abrupt sharp sound
- stagnant :: motionless; stale; dull
- staid :: sober; sedate
- stalemate :: deadlock
- stalwart :: strong, brawny; steadfast
- stamina :: strength; staying power
- stanch :: check flow of blood
- statement or solemn declaration
- statute :: law
- statutory :: created by statute or legislative action
- stein :: beer mug
- stellar :: pertaining to the stars
- stentorian :: extremely loud
- stereotyped :: fixed and unvarying representation
- stertorous :: having a snoring sound
- stigma :: token of disgrace; brand
- stigmatize :: brand; mark as wicked
- stilted :: bombastic; inflated
- stint :: supply; allotted amount; assigned portion of work
- stipend :: pay for services
- stoic :: person who is indifferent to pleasure or pain
- stolid :: dull; impassive
- stratagem :: deceptive scheme
- stratum :: layer of earth's surface; layer of society
- striated :: marked with parallel bands
- stricture :: critical comments; severe and adverse criticism
- strident :: loud and harsh
- stringent :: binding; rigid
- structure and development of words
- stultify :: cause to appear foolish or inconsistent
- stupor :: state of apathy; daze; lack of awareness
- stymie :: present an obstacle; stump
- suave :: smooth; bland
- suavity :: urbanity; polish
- sub rosa :: in strict confidence; privately
- subaltern :: subordinate
- subjective :: occurring or taking place within the subject; unreal
- subjugate :: conquer; bring under control
- sublimate :: refine; purify
- sublime :: exalted; noble; uplifting
- subliminal :: below the threshold
- subsequent :: following; later
- subservient :: behaving like a slave; servile; obsequious
- subsidiary :: subordinate; secondary
- subsidy :: direct financial aid by government, etc.
- subsistence :: existence; means of support; livelihood
- substantiate :: verify; support
- substantive :: essential; pertaining to the substance
- subterfuge :: pretense; evasion
- subtlety :: nicety; cunning; guile; delicacy
- subversive :: tending to overthrow or ruin
- succinct :: brief; terse; compact
- succor :: aid; assistance; relief
- succulent :: juicy; full of richness
- sudorific :: pertaining to perspiration
- suffuse :: spread over
- sully :: tarnish; soil
- sultry :: sweltering
- summation :: act of finding the total; summary
- sumptuary :: limiting or regulating expenditures
- sumptuous :: lavish; rich
- sunder :: separate; part
- sundry :: various; several
- superannuated :: retired on pension because of age
- supercilious :: contemptuous; haughty
- superficial :: trivial; shallow
- superfluity :: excess; overabundance
- superimpose :: place over something else
- superior despot
- supernal :: heavenly; celestial
- supernumerary :: person or thing in excess of what is necessary; extra
- supersede :: cause to be set aside; replace
- supine :: lying on back
- supple :: flexible; pliant
- suppliant :: entreating; beseeching
- supplicate :: petition humbly; pray to grant a favor
- supposititious :: assumed; counterfeit; hypothetical
- suppurate :: create pus
- surcease :: cessation
- surfeit :: cloy; overfeed
- surly :: rude; cross
- surmise :: guess
- surreptitious :: secret
- surveillance :: watching; guarding
- sustenance :: means of support, food, nourishment
- suture :: stitches sewn to hold the cut edges of a wound or incision
- swathe :: wrap around; bandage
- swelter :: be oppressed by heat
- sycophantic :: servilely flattering
- syllogism :: logical formula utilizing a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion
- sylvan :: pertaining to the woods; rustic
- symmetry :: arrangement of parts so that balance is obtained; congruity
- synchronous :: similarly timed; simultaneous with
- synthesis :: combining parts into a whole
- synthetic :: artificial; resulting from synthesis
- tacit :: understood; not put into words
- taciturn :: habitually silent; talking little
- tactile :: pertaining to the organs or sense of touch
- tainted :: contaminated; corrupt
- talisman :: charm
- talon :: claw of bird
- tantalize :: tease; torture with disappointment
- tantamount :: equal
- tantrum :: fit of petulance; caprice
- tarantula :: venomous spider
- tarn :: small mountain lake
- tatterdemalion :: ragged fellow
- taut :: tight; ready
- tautological :: needlessly repetitious
- tautology :: unnecessary repetition; pleonasm
- tawdry :: cheap and gaudy
- tedium :: boredom; weariness
- teleology :: doctrine of final causes
- temerarious :: rash
- temerity :: boldness; rashness
- tempo :: speed of music
- temporal :: not lasting forever; limited by time; secular
- temporize :: avoid committing oneself; gain time
- tenacious :: holding fast
- tenacity :: firmness; persistency; adhesiveness
- tendentious :: having an aim; designed to further a cause
- tenebrous :: dark; gloomy
- tenet :: doctrine; dogma
- tentative :: provisional; experimental
- tenuous :: thin; rare; slim
- tenure :: holding of an office; time during which such an office is held
- tepid :: lukewarm
- tergiversation :: evasion; fickleness
- termagant :: shrew; scolding, brawling woman
- terminology :: terms used in a science or art
- terminus :: last stop of railroad
- terrapin :: American marsh tortoise
- terrestrial :: on the earth
- terse :: concise; abrupt; pithy
- tertiary :: third
- tessellated :: inlaid; mosaic
- testator :: maker of a will
- testy :: irritable; short-tempered
- tether :: tie with a rope
- thaumaturgist :: miracle worker; magician
- theocracy :: government of a community by religious leaders
- theosophy :: wisdom in divine things
- therapeutic :: curative
- thermal :: pertaining to heat
- thought; gloomy
- thrall :: slave; bondage
- threnody :: song of lamentation; dirge
- throes :: violent anguish
- throttle :: strangle
- thwart :: baffle; frustrate
- thyme :: aromatic plant used for seasoning
- timbre :: quality of a musical tone produced by a musical instrument
- timidity :: lack of self-confidence or courage
- timorous :: fearful; demonstrating fear
- tipple :: drink alcoholic beverages frequently
- tirade :: extended scolding; denunciation
- titanic :: gigantic
- tithe :: tax of one-tenth
- titillate :: tickle
- titular :: nominal holding of title without obligations
- to sore and inflamed portions of the body
- toady :: flatter for favors
- tocsin :: alarm bell
- toga :: Roman outer robe
- tome :: large volume
- tonsure :: shaving of the head, especially by person entering religious orders
- topography :: physical features of a region
- torpid :: dormant; dull; lethargic
- torso :: trunk of statue with head and limbs missing; human trunk
- tortilla :: flat cake made of cornmeal, etc.
- tortuous :: winding; full of curves
- touchstone :: stone used to test the fineness of gold alloys; criterion
- touchy :: sensitive; irascible
- toxic :: poisonous
- tract :: pamphlet; a region of indefinite size
- tractable :: docile
- traduce :: expose to slander
- trajectory :: path taken by a projectile
- tranquillity :: calmness; peace
- transcend :: exceed; surpass
- transcribe :: copy
- transgression :: violation of a law; sin
- transient :: fleeting; quickly passing away; staying for a short time
- transition :: going from one state of action to another
- translucent :: partly transparent
- transmute :: change; convert to
- transparent :: permitting light to pass through freely; easily detected
- transpire :: exhale; become known; happen
- traumatic :: pertaining to an injury caused by violence
- travail :: painful labor
- traverse :: go through or across
- travesty :: comical parody; treatment aimed at making something appear ridiculous
- treacle :: syrup obtained in refining sugar
- treatise :: article treating a subject systematically and thoroughly
- trek :: travel; migrate
- tremor :: trembling; slight quiver
- tremulous :: trembling; wavering
- trenchant :: cutting; keen
- trencherman :: good eater
- trepidation :: fear; trembling agitation
- tribulation :: distress; suffering
- tribunal :: court of justice
- tribute :: tax levied by a ruler; mark of respect
- trident :: three-pronged spear
- trilogy :: group of three works
- triolet :: eight-line stanza
- trite :: hackneyed; commonplace
- troglodyte :: cave dweller
- trope :: figure of speech
- troth :: pledge of good faith especially in betrothal
- truckle :: curry favor; act in an obsequious way
- truculent :: aggressive; savage
- truism :: self-evident truth
- trumpery :: objects that are showy, valueless, deceptive
- truncate :: cut the top off
- tryst :: meeting
- tumbrel :: a farm tipcart
- tumid :: swollen; pompous; bombastic
- tundra :: rolling, treeless plain in Siberia and arctic North America
- turbid :: muddy; having the sediment disturbed
- turbulence :: state of violent agitation
- tureen :: deep table dish for holding soup
- turgid :: swollen; distended
- turnkey :: jailer
- turpitude :: depravity
- tutelage :: guardianship; training
- tutelary :: protective; pertaining to a guardianship
- tyro :: beginner; novice
- ubiquitous :: being everywhere; omnipresent
- ukase :: official decree, usually Russian
- ulterior :: situated beyond; unstated
- ultimate :: final; not susceptible to further analysis
- ultimatum :: last demand; warning
- umbrage :: resentment; anger; sense of injury or insult
- unanimity :: complete agreement
- unassuaged :: unsatisfied; not soothed
- unassuming :: modest
- unbridled :: violent
- uncanny :: strange; mysterious
- unconscionable :: unscrupulous; excessive
- uncouth :: outlandish; clumsy; boorish
- unction :: the act of anointing with oil
- unctuous :: oily; bland; insincerely suave
- undulate :: move with a wave like motion
- unearth :: dig up
- unearthly :: not earthly; weird
- unequivocal :: plain; obvious
- unfaltering :: steadfast
- unfeigned :: genuine; real
- ungainly :: awkward
- unguent :: ointment
- unilateral :: one-sided
- unimpeachable :: blameless and exemplary
- unique :: without an equal; single in kind
- unison :: unity of pitch; complete accord
- unkempt :: disheveled; with uncared for appearance
- unmitigated :: harsh; severe; not lightened
- unruly :: disobedient; lawless
- unseemly :: unbecoming; indecent
- unsullied :: untarnished
- untenable :: unsupportable
- untoward :: unfortunate; annoying
- unwitting :: unintentional; not knowing
- unwonted :: unaccustomed
- upbraid :: scold; reproach
- urbane :: suave; refined; elegant
- ursine :: bearlike; pertaining to a bear
- usufruct :: right of enjoying things belonging to another
- usurpation :: act of seizing power and rank of another
- usury :: lending money at illegal rates of interest
- utopia :: imaginary land with perfect social and political system
- uxorious :: excessively devoted to one's wife
- vacillation :: fluctuation; wavering
- vacuous :: empty; inane
- vagary :: caprice; whim
- vainglorious :: boastful; excessively conceited
- valance :: short drapery hanging above window frame
- valedictory :: pertaining to farewell
- valetudinarian :: invalid
- validate :: confirm; ratify
- vampire :: ghostly being that sucks the blood of the living
- vanguard :: forerunners; advance forces
- vantage :: position giving an advantage
- vapid :: insipid; inane
- variegated :: many-colored
- vassal :: in feudalism, one who held land of a superior lord
- vaunted :: boasted; bragged; highly publicized
- veer :: change in direction
- vegetate :: live in a monotonous way
- vehement :: impetuous; with marked vigor
- vellum :: parchment
- venal :: capable of being bribed
- vendetta :: feud; private warfare
- veneer :: thin layer; cover
- venerable :: deserving high respect
- venerate :: revere
- venial :: forgivable; trivial
- vent :: a small opening; outlet
- vent :: express; utter
- ventral :: abdominal
- venturous :: daring
- veracious :: truthful
- verbatim :: word for word
- verbiage :: pompous array of words
- verbose :: wordy
- verdant :: green; fresh
- verdigris :: a green coating on copper which has been exposed to the weather
- verity :: truth; reality
- vermicular :: pertaining to a worm
- vernal :: pertaining to spring
- versatile :: having many talents; capable of working in many fields
- vertex :: summit
- vertiginous :: giddy; causing dizziness
- vertigo :: dizziness
- vestige :: trace; remains
- viable :: capable of maintaining life
- viand :: food
- vicarious :: acting as a substitute; done by a deputy
- vicissitude :: change of fortune
- victuals :: food
- vie :: contend; compete
- vigilance :: watchfulness
- vilify :: slander
- vindicate :: clear of charges
- vindictive :: revengeful
- viper :: poisonous snake
- virago :: shrew
- virile :: manly
- virtuoso :: highly skilled artist
- virulent :: extremely poisonous
- virus :: disease communicator
- visage :: face; appearance
- viscid :: sticky; adhesive
- viscous :: sticky; gluey
- visionary :: produced by imagination;
- vitiate :: spoil the effect of; make inoperative
- vitreous :: pertaining to or resembling glass
- vitriolic :: corrosive; sarcastic
- vituperative :: abusive; scolding
- vivacious :: animated; gay
- vivisection :: act of dissecting living animals
- vociferous :: clamorous; noisy
- vogue :: popular fashion
- volatile :: evaporating rapidly; lighthearted; mercurial
- volition :: act of making a conscious choice
- voluble :: fluent; glib
- voluptuous :: gratifying the senses
- voracious :: ravenous
- votary :: follower of a cult
- vouchsafe :: grant condescendingly; guarantee
- vying :: contending
- waggish :: mischievous; humorous; tricky
- waive :: give up temporarily; yield
- wan :: having a pale or sickly color; pallid
- wane :: grow gradually smaller
- wanton :: unruly; unchaste; excessive
- warranty :: guarantee; assurance by seller
- wary :: very cautious
- wastrel :: profligate
- welkin :: sky
- welter :: wallow
- wheedle :: cajole; coax; deceive by flattery
- whet :: sharpen; stimulate
- whimsical :: capricious; fanciful; quaint
- whit :: smallest speck
- whorl :: ring of leaves around stem; ring
- wily :: cunning; artful
- winsome :: agreeable; gracious; engaging
- witless :: foolish; idiotic
- witticism :: witty saying; facetious remark
- wizardry :: sorcery; magic
- wizened :: withered; shriveled
- wont :: custom; habitual procedure
- worldly :: engrossed in matters of this earth; not spiritual
- wraith :: ghost; phantom of a living person
- wreak :: inflict
- wrest :: pull away; take by violence
- yeoman :: man owning small estate; middle-class farmer
- yokel :: country bumpkin
- zealot :: fanatic; person who shows excessive zeal
- zenith :: point directly overhead in the sky; summit
- zephyr :: gentle breeze; west wind
Read and Answer
A part of each sentence given below has been underlined. You have to
select the option that best replaces the underlined part.
Q.British Airspace has been
focusing on building European links.
concentrating on creating European links
pursuing ways of building European connectivity
stressing on building European links
focusing on forging European links
Q.The appetite of banks for funds was lost under the onslaught of the slowdown, corporates refused to
borrow even as
bank deposits flourished.
bank deposits flourished
bank deposits swelled
bank deposits were enhanced
bank deposits flummoxed
Q.The 8th-century revival of Byzantine learning is
an inexplicable phenomenon, and its economic and
military precursors have yet to be discovered
a phenomenon yet to be discovered
a phenomenon incompletely explained
an inexplicable phenomenon
an unidentifiable phenomenon
Q.The management can still hire freely but
cannot scold freely.
cannot scold at will
cannot give umbrage
cannot take decisions to scold
cannot scold willfully
Q.Many people mistake familiarity for a vulgar style, and suppose that to write without affectation
write at random speed
is to write at random
is to write randomly
is to write fast
is to do speed writing
Read and Answer
Fill in the blanks of the following sentences using the most appropriate
word or words from among the options given for each.
Q.Football evokes a ___ response in India compared to cricket, that almost ___ the nation.
tepid ... boiling
lukewarm ... electrifies
turbid ... fascinating
apocryphal ... genuinely fascinates
Q.Social studies, science matters of health and safety, the very atmosphere of the classroom —
these areas are few of the ___ for the ___ of proper emotional reactions.
things ... growth
fertile areas ... basis
fertile fields ... inculcation
important areas ... formation
Q.When children become more experienced with words as visual symbols, they find that they can
gain meaning without making ___ sounds.
Q.Learning is more efficient when it is ___. It is less efficient when it is ___.
fast ... slow
rapid ... turtle-slow
tedious ... like a joy ride
fun ... drudgery
Q.To a greater or lesser degree all the civilized countries of the world are made up of a small class of
rulers ___ and of a large class of subjects ___.
formed by a small minority ... who are uncivilized
powerfully corrupt ... pointless crusaders
corrupted by too much power ... corrupted by too much passive obedience
who are ruled ... who ruled
Q.Simple arithmetic tells us that there is more ___ than ___.
imitation ... innovation
improvisation ... improvement
impracticality ... knowledge
improbability ... probability
Q.As a step towards protesting against the spiralling prices, the farmers have decided to stage a
picket in an effort to ___.
show their virility
make themselves heard
curb the prices
topple the government
Q.Science is a sort of news agency comparable ___ to other news agencies.
in spirit and form
Q.Most political leaders acquire their position by causing a large number of people to believe that
these leaders are ___ by altruistic desires
Q.Everyone will admit that swindling one's fellow beings is a necessary practice; upon it is based the
really sound commercial success formula — ___
sell what you cannot buy back
buy what you will sell to another at a higher price
buy cheap and sell dear
sell what you can, do not buy from a competitor
Read and answer
Arrange sentences A, B, C and D between sentences 1 and 6 to form
a logical sequence of six sentences
Q.1. Buddhism is a way to salvation.
A. But Buddhism is more severely analytical.
B. In the Christian tradition there is also a concern for the fate of human society conceived as
a whole, rather than merely as a sum or network of individuals.
C. Salvation is a property, or achievement of individuals.
D. Not only does it dissolve society into individuals, the individual in turn is dissolved into
component parts and instants, a stream of events.
6. In modern terminology, Buddhist doctrine is reductionist.
Q.1. The problem of improving Indian agriculture is both a sociological and an administrative one.
A. It also appears that there is a direct relationship between the size of a state and development.
B. The issues of Indian development, and the problem of India's agricultural sector, will remain
with us long into the next century.
C. Without improving Indian agriculture, no liberalisation and delicensing will be able to help
D. At the end of the day, there has to be a ferment and movement of life and action in the vast
segment of rural India.
6. When it starts marching, India will fly.
Q.1. Good literary magazines have always been good because of their editors.
A. Furthermore, to edit by committee, as it were, would prevent any magazine from finding its
B. The more quirky and idiosyncratic they have been, the better the magazine is, at least as a
C. But the number of editors one can have for a magazine should also be determined by the
number of contributions to it.
D. To have four editors for an issue that contains only seven contributions, it is a bit silly to start
6. However, in spite of this anomaly, the magazine does acquire merit in its attempt to give a
comprehensive view of the Indian literary scene as it is today
Q.1. It is the success story of the Indian expatriate in the US which today hogs much of the media
coverage in India.
A. East and West, the twain have met quite comfortably in their person, thank you.
B. Especially in its more recent romancing — the-NRI phase.
C. Seldom does the price of getting there — more like not getting there — or what's going on
behind those sunny smiles get so much media hype.
D. Well groomed, with their perfect Colgate smiles, and hair in place, they appear the picture
of confidence which comes from having arrived.
6. The festival of feature films and documentaries made by Americans of Indian descent being
screened this fortnight, goes a long way in filling those gaps.
Q.1. A market for Indian art has existed ever since the international art scene sprang to life.
A. But interest in architectural conceits is an unanticipated fallout of the Festivals of India of
the '80s, which were designed to increase exports of Indian crafts.
B. Simultaneously, the Indian elite discarded their synthetic sarees and kitsch plastic furniture
and a market came into being.
C. Western dealers, unhappy in a market afflicted by violent price fluctuations and unpredictable
profit margins, began to look East, and found cheap antiques with irresistible appeal.
D. The fortunes of the Delhi supremos, the Jew Town dealers in Cochin and myriad others
around the country were made.
6. A chain of command was established, from the local contacts to the provincial dealers and up
to the big boys, who entertain the Italians and the French, cutting deals worth lakhs in warehouses
Read and answer
In each of the following questions, a paragraph has been split into four
parts. You have to rearrange these parts to form a coherent paragraph.
Q.A. He was carrying his jacket and walked with his head thrown back.
B. As Annette neared the lamp she saw a figure walking slowly.
C. For a while Michael walked on and she followed 20 paces behind.
D. With a mixture of terror and triumph of recognition she slackened her pace.
Q.A. However, the real challenge today is in unlearning, which is much harder.
B. But the new world of business behaves differently from the world in which we grew up.
C. Learning is important for both people and organisations.
D. Each of us has a 'mental model' that we've used over the years to make sense.
Q.A. There was nothing quite like a heavy downpour of rain to make life worthwhile.
B. We reached the field, soaked to the skin, and surrounded it.
C. The wet, as far as he was concerned, was ideal.
D. There, sure enough, stood Claudius, looking like a debauched Roman emperor under a shower.
Q.A. Alex had never been happy with his Indian origins.
B. He set about rectifying this grave injustice by making his house in his own image of a country
C. Fate had been unfair to him; if he had had his wish, he would have been a count or an Earl on
some English estate, or a medieval monarch in a chateau in France.
(D) This illusion of misplaced grandeur, his wife felt, would be Alex's undoing.
Q.A. The influence is reflected the most in beaded evening wear.
B. Increasingly, the influence of India's colours and cuts can be seen on western styles.
C. And even as Nehru jackets and Jodhpurs remain staples of the fashion world, designers such as
Armani and McFadden have turned to the sleek silhouette of the churidar this year.
D. Indian hot pink, paprika and saffron continue to be popular colours, year in and year out
Q.A. Such a national policy will surely divide and never unite the people.
B. In fact, it suits the purpose of the politicians; they can drag the people into submission by
appealing to them in the name of religion.
C. In order to inculcate the unquestioning belief they condemn the other states, which do not follow
D. The emergence of the theocratic states, where all types of crimes are committed in the name of
religion, has revived the religion of the Middle Ages.
Q.A. His left-hand concealed a blackjack, his right-hand groped for the torch in his pocket.
B. The meeting was scheduled for 9 o'clock, and his watch showed the time to be a quarter to nine.
C. The man lurked in the corner, away from the glare of light.
D. His heart thumped in his chest, sweat beads formed themselves on his forehead, his mouth was
Q.A. The director walked into the room and took a look around the class.
B. Mitch wanted to scream — the illogicality of the entire scene struck him dumb.
C. The managers stared at him with the look of fear that no democratic country should tolerate in
D. He walked out of the room — it was his irrevocable protest against an insensible and insensitive
Q.A. The establishment of the Third Reich influenced events in American history by starting a chain of
events which culminated in war between Germany and the United States.
B. The Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1936 prohibited trade with any belligerents or loans to them.
C. While speaking out against Hitler's atrocities, the American people generally favoured isolationist
policies and neutrality.
D. The complete destruction of democracy, the persecution of Jews, the war on religion, the cruelty
and barbarism of the allies, caused great indignation in this country and brought on fear of
another World War.
Q.A. An essay which appeals chiefly to the intellect is Francis Bacon's Of Studies.
B. His careful tripartite division of studies expressed succinctly in aphoristic prose demands the
complete attention of the mind of the reader.
C. He considers studies as they should be; for pleasure, for self-improvement, for business.
D. He considers the evils of excess study: laziness, affectation, and preciosity.
Q.A. By reasoning we mean the mental process of drawing an inference from two or more statements
or going from the inference to the statements, which yield that inference.
B. So logical reasoning covers those types of questions, which imply drawing an inference from the
C. Logic means, if we take its original meaning, the science of valid reasoning.
D. Clearly, for understanding arguments and for drawing the inference correctly, it is necessary that
we should understand the statements first.
Read and answer
In each question, the main statement is followed by four sentences.
Select the pair of sentences that relates logically to the given statement.
Q.Either Sita is sick or she is careless.
A. Sita is not sick. B. Sita is not careless.
C. Sita is sick. D. Sita is careless.
Q.Ram gets a swollen nose whenever he eats hamburgers.
A. Ram gets a swollen nose. B. Ram does not eat hamburgers.
C. Ram does not get a swollen nose. D. Ram eats hamburgers.
Q.Either the employees have no confidence in the management or they are hostile by nature.
A. They are not hostile by nature. B. They are hostile by nature.
C. They have confidence in the management. D. They have no confidence in the management.
Q.Whenever Ram reads late into the night, his father beats him.
A. His father does not beat Ram. B. Ram reads late into the night.
C. Ram reads early in the morning. D. Ram's father beats him in the morning.
None of these
Q.All irresponsible parents shout if their children do not cavort.
A. All irresponsible parents do not shout. B. Children cavort.
C. Children do not cavort. D. All irresponsible parents shout.
All of these
Read and Answer
For the word given at the top of each table, match the dictionary definitions on the left (A, B, C, D) with their
corresponding usage on the right (E, F, G, H). Out of the four possibilities given in the boxes below the
table, select the one that has all the definitions and their usages correctly matched.
Ans . A
Ans . D
Ans . C
Ans . B
Ans . D
Read and Answer
Directions for questions : The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form
a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences
from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph
Q. A. Although there are large regional variations, it is not infrequent to find a large number of people
sitting here and there and doing nothing.
B. Once in office, they receive friends and relatives who feel free to call any time without prior
C. While working, one is struck by the slow and clumsy actions and reactions, indifferent attitudes,
procedure rather than outcome orientation, and the lack of consideration for others.
D. Even those who are employed often come late to the office and leave early unless they are forced
to be punctual.
E. Work is not intrinsically valued in India.
F. Quite often people visit ailing friends and relatives or go out of their way to help them in their
personal matters even during office hours.
Ans . C
Q. A. But in the industrial era destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means bombing the factories
which are located in the cities.
B. So in the agrarian era, if you need to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, what you want to
do is burn his fields, or if you’re really vicious, salt them.
C. Now in the information era, destroying the enemy’s productive capacity means destroying the
D. How do you do battle with your enemy?
E. The idea is to destroy the enemy’s productive capacity, and depending upon the economic
foundation, that productive capacity is different in each case.
F. With regard to defence, the purpose of the military is to defend the nation and be prepared to do
battle with its enemy.
Ans . A
Q. A. Michael Hofman, a poet and translator, accepts this sorry fact without approval or complaint.
B. But thanklessness and impossibility do not daunt him.
C. He acknowledges too — in fact, he returns to the point often — that best translators of poetry
always fail at some level.
D. Hofman feels passionately about his work and this is clear from his writings.
E. In terms of the gap between worth and rewards, translators come somewhere near nurses and
Ans . C
Q. A. Passivity is not, of course, universal.
B. In areas where there are no lords or laws, or in frontier zones where all men go armed, the attitude
of the peasantry may well be different.
C. So indeed it may be on the fringe of the unsubmissive.
D. However, for most of the soil-bound peasants the problem is not whether to be normally passive
or active, but when to pass from one state to another.
E. This depends on an assessment of the political situation
Ans . D
Q. A. The situations in which violence occurs and the nature of that violence tends to be clearly defined
at least in theory, as in the proverbial Irishman’s question: “Is this a private fight or can anyone
B. So the actual risk to outsiders, though no doubt higher than our societies, is calculable.
C. Probably the only uncontrolled applications of force are those of social superiors to social inferiors
and even here there are probably some rules.
D. However, binding the obligation to kill, members of feuding families engaged in mutual massacre
will be genuinely appalled if by some mischance a bystander or outsider is killed.
Ans . A
READ AND ANSWER
In each of the following sentences, parts of the sentence are left blank.
Beneath each sentence, four different ways of completing the sentence are indicated. Choose the best
alternative from among the four.
Q. But ___ are now regularly written not just for tools, but well-established practices, organisations and
institutions, not all of which seem to be ___ away.
reports ... withering
stories ... trading
books ... dying
obituaries ... fading
Ans . D
Q. The Darwin who ___ is most remarkable for the way in which he ___ the attributes of the world class
thinker and head of the household
comes ... figures
arises ... adds
emerges ... combines
appeared ... combines
Ans . C
Q. Since her face was free of ___ there was no way to ___ if she appreciated what had happened.
make-up ... realise
expression ... ascertain
emotion ... diagnose
scars ... understand
Ans . B
Q. In this context, the ___ of the British labour movement is particularly ___.
affair ... weird
activity ... moving
experience ... significant
atmosphere ... gloomy
Ans . C
Q. Indian intellectuals may boast, if they are so inclined, of being ___ to the most elitist among the
intellectual ___ of the world.
subordinate ... traditions
heirs ... cliques
ancestors ... societies
heir ... traditions
Ans . D
For each of the words below, a contextual usage is provided. Pick the
word from the alternatives given that is most inappropriate in the given context.
Q. Specious: A specious argument is not simply a false one but one that has the ring of truth.
Ans . C
Q. Obviate: The new mass transit system may obviate the need for the use of personal cars
Ans . D
Q. Disuse: Some words fall into disuse as technology makes objects obsolete
Ans . A
Q. Parsimonious: The evidence was constructed from very parsimonious scraps of information
Ans . D
Q. Facetious: When I suggested that war is a method of controlling population, my father remarked
that I was being facetious.
Ans . A