Handicrafts are an amalgamation of all things that can built or crafted using hands.
Glassware was used by the Mughals in their palaces E.g: Sheesh Mahal. There is no evidence of glass beads in the harappan civilization. In Vedic text "Satapatha Brahmana" the term for text was Kanch.
There are various types of handicraft techniques that are used on cloth like weaving and printing. Bandhani is a technique where wooden blocks or printed cloths were used to make patterns on other material.
Special kind of Tie and Dye technique was called Laharia which created patterns like waves on the clothes.
Kalamkari utilizes the art of hand painting of fabric using vegetable dyes of the deep colors.
Ivory Crafting : Ivory carvings were exported from India during the Harappan period. There is evidence of ivory being used for handicrafts during Mughal period too.
Terracotta Crafts: This means baked clay. The process makes it water-proof and hard. This makes it suitable for pottery, bricks.
Clay and pottery : Pottery making is known as "Lyrics of handicrafts". Making objects out of clay has been one of the earliest things known to man. Vedic period saw "Painted greyware Pottery" being made.
Bronze craft : The dancing girl of mohen-jo-daro was an evidence of the art of metal casting. The earliest non ferrous metals used by man were copper and tin. These were mixed to obtain bronze.
To be included on the World Heritage List, sites must be of outstanding universal value and meet at least one out of ten selection criteria.
Until the end of 2004, World Heritage sites were selected on the basis of six cultural and four natural criteria. With the adoption of the revised Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention, only one set of ten criteria exists.
Definition of cultural heritage : For the purposes of the World Heritage Convention, the following are considered as "cultural heritage":
Monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;
Groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science;
Sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of outstanding universal value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological points of view.
Definition of natural heritage : For the purposes of the World Heritage Convention, the following are considered as "natural heritage":
Natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of outstanding universal value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;
geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation;
natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty.
Selection criteria : For a property to be included on the World Heritage List, the World Heritage Committee must find that it meets one or more of the following criteria:
to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius;
to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design;
to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared;
to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history;
to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change;
to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria);
to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance;
to be outstanding examples representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features;
to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals;
to contain the most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.
The protection, management, authenticity and integrity of properties are also important considerations.
Legal Status of Designated Sites
Once accepted as a heritage site, it is accepted as prima facie evidence that such site is culturally sensitive and warrants legal protection pursuant to Law of War under Geneva convention.
Brings international attention for need for preservation and conservation of the site.
Brings tourism to the site creating economic benefits.
UNESCO provides funds for conservation, restoration, preservation etc.
Promotes close ties with the UN system and the prestige and support it provides.
Enables access to global project management resources.
Site becomes protected against geneva convention against destruction and misuse during wartime.
Facilitates creation of partnership between government, private sector and NGO's to achieve conservation goals.
Folk lore says Narada Muni introduced to the Earth the art of music. He also taught the inhabitants about the sound that pervades the whole universe named "Naada Brahma".
Panini made the first reference to the art of making music. In vedic literature it is the Sam Veda that contains references to the art of making music.
Ritualistic music which focused on chanting of verses that were set to musical patterns called Sangama. Even the epics were set to narrative music called Jatigan.
The first work that elaborated on the subject of musicology is Bharata's Natyashastra. It contains several chapters on music especially the ones that identified the octave and elaborated on the 22 keys. These keys were known as "Shrustis"
A change in the tenor of music came with effect of persian elements. This influx of islamic and persian elements changed the face of North Indian music.
Main Pillars of Indian Music - Raga, Tala and Swara.
It means "note" or "scale degree" in a composition.
In natyashastra, bharata had divided the swaras into twenty two note scales.
Currently the notional system of Hindustani music is defined by these abbreviated swaras - Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni and Sa.
Raga forms the basis of melody and tala forms basis of the rhythm.
Each melodic structure of the raga has something similar to the distinct personality subject and the mood evoked by the sounds.
The rhythmic group of beatings is called Tala. The rhythmic cycle ranges from 3 to 108 beats.
The theory of time measurement is not similar to hindustani or Carnatic music.
Tempo of tala which keeps its uniformity of the time span is called "laya".
The reason behind creation of ragas is to invoke emotion in the audience.
These emotions are invoked through singing and playing of instruments called Rasa.
There are 9 rasas. They consciously make us feel an emotion through someone elses art.
Thaat : Presently in Hindustani classical music 10 Thaat system of classification has been adopted.
Samay :Each raga can be performed at a specific time. This is because those notes are supposed to be effective at that particular time.
Hindustani music : Practised in the Northern parts of India
Carnatic music : Practised in the southern parts of India.
The roots of this music school belongs to Bharat "Natyasastra".
The hindustani branch focuses more on musical structure and possibilities of improvisation on it.
It also adopts a scale of "shudha Swara Saptaka" - Octave of Natural Notes.
The main styles of Hindustani music are :
Dhrupad :One of the oldest and grandest form of Hindustani music. This style reached its zenith in the court of Emperor Akbar. Dhrupad compositions usually have 4 to 5 stanzas and are performed by a duo.
Khayal :It is derived from the persian word "idea" and this style is attributed to Amir Khusrau.
Thumri :Is based on mixed ragas and is considered a semi classical form of music. It is derived from bhakti movement and hence the songs revolve around a girls devotion to Krishna. The songs are usually by a female voice.
Tappa :Originated from the folk songs of camel riders from north west. Compositions are fast, subtle and knotty constructions.
Tarana: It uses many words sung at a fast tempo.
Dhammar hori style:It is a very organised style and has a cycle of 14 beats. Compositions are erotic in nature and sung for Lord Krishna.
Ghazal :It is a poetic form that has rhyming couplets and a refrain with each line sharing the same meter. They never exceed 12 couplets. Ghazals originated in iran and spread due to the influence of Sufi mystic in sultanate courts.
Creates music on the traditional octave. The music is kriti based and focuses more on the saahitya or lyric quality of the musical piece.
Pallavi :First or second thematic lines of the composition are called Palavi.
Anu Pallavi :Follows the pallavi and is sung at beginning or the end of the song.
Varnam :Usually sung at the beginning of the recital.
Ragmalika :Concluding part of the pallavi.
|Hindustani music||Carnatic music|
|foreign influence - arab, persian||Indigenous|
|Scope for artist to improvise||no scope|
|There are several substyles which have created gharanas.||Only one particular prescribed style of singing|
|Associated with north india.||Associated with south india.|