Baul : It is a type of Bengali music and a religious sect. The lyrics carry influence from Bhakti movement as well as sufi movement.
Wanawan : Folk music from kashmir which is sung during wedding ceremonies.
Padwani : This music is based on Mahabharata and uses both singing and playing instruments.
Alha : Song is from Madhya Pradesh and is a heroic ballad song.
Paani hari : Song is from the state of Rajasthan and is thematically related to water. Songs are generally about women fetching water from nearby well.
Ovi : Maharashtra and Goan women sing such songs during leisure time.
Pai song : Songs are mostly from Madhya Pradesh sung during festivals.
Lavani : Popular folk song from Maharashtra. Music has powerful rhythm and beats and is suitable for dancing.
Maand : Developed in the royal circles
Dandiya raas : Performed in Gujarat and is associated with holi and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan
Powada : Folk type emerging from Maharashtra
Khongjom Parva : Important folk music from state of Manipur.
Bhagwati : Popular amongst masses of Karnataka and Maharashtra. Musically they are close to ghazals and are sung on a slower pitch.
Natya veda is an amalgamation of Pathya (words) from Rig veda, Abhinaya (gestures) from Yajur veda, Geet (music) from Sam veda and Rasa (emotions) from Atharva veda.
Two basic aspects to Indian classical dance :
Lasya - It denotes bhava, rasa and abhinaya. It is symbolic of the feminine features of dance as an art form.
Tandava - It symbolises the male aspects of the dance form and emphasizes of rhythm and movement.
Nandikeshwara "Abhinaya Darpan" - Famous treatise on dance
Nritta - Basic dance steps devoid of emotion
Natya -Dramatic elaboration
Nritya -Sentiments and emotions related through dance.
Mudra -108 fundamental mudras which are used to depict a particular emotion.
Nine Rasas expressed through Dance
Shringara - love; Veer - heroism
Rudra - fury; Shanta - Peace and tranquility
Bibhatsa - disgust; Haasya - Laughter and comedy
Karunya - tragedy; Bhayanak - horror; Adbhuta - wonder
Oldest among the classical dance forms.
It is also referred to as Dasiattam - dance performed by the Devdasi at temples.
However with the decline of the Devadasi system this too saw an almost extinction.
Earlier it was a monopoly of a solo female dancer, however now it has become open to both male and females.
The features of bharatnatyam are:
Alarippu - Invocatory piece of performance which includes basic dance postures. It is meant to seek blessings of god.
Jatiswaram - Pure form of dance includes different poses and movements.
Shabdam - Dramatic element that includes abhinaya in the song.
Varnam - Combination of dance and emotions. Padam - Refers to mastery over abhinaya by an artist. Jawali - Short love lyrics performed at a fast tempo. Thillana - Concluding stage performance, comprising pure dance with exuberant movements and rhythmic variations.
Earlier performed by group of actors going from village to village known as Kusselavas.
Then this dance became a monopoly of brahmin priests during growth of Vaishnavism. This dance was performed at temples and had patronage of Vijaynagar and Golconda rulers.
In the 20th century the dying art form was revived by Ragini Devi and Balasaraswati. It became popular with female dancers as well.
Dhaaru - small dance composition which reveals each character.
Tarangam - dancer performs with his/her feet on the edges of a brass plate and balances a pot of water on the head with a set of diyas
Jal chitra nrityam - Dancer draws picure on the floor with his or her feet.
In the temples of kerela, two forms of dance emerged called Ramanattam and Krishnattam evolved under the patronage of feudal lords narrating episodes from Ramayana and Mahabharat. These folk drama traditions became the source of Kathakali (Katha - story and Kali - drama.) It was revived by the famous Malayali poet V N Menon.
Most kathakali recitals are a grand representations of good versus evil. Kathakali is remarkable in the representation of the rasas through movement of eye and eye brows.
Minimum props are used but elaborate makeup and head gear is used.
It is usually performed on coarse mats in open air theatres and temple premises.
It was revived by Malayali poet V N Menon. It combines the grace of bharatnatyam with the vigor of Kathakali. It is a solo dance.
It generally narrates the story of the feminine dance of vishnu.
Lasya aspect of dance is dominant in a mohiniattam recital. Hence it is performed by female dancers.
Costume is very important with white and off white being the principal colors.
Caves of khandagiri and udaigiri are examples of the earliest forms of this dance. It was practised by "Maharais" and patronised by the Jain king Kheravela.
Similar to bharatnatyam it uses mudras and postures to express emotions. The tribhanga posture i.e. the three blended form of the body is innate to odissi dance form.
Dancers create geometrical shapes with her body. Dance is accompanied by Hindustani music
Elements of the dance include :
Mangalcharan : beginning
Batu nritya : comprising of the dance
Pallavi : facial expressions
Tharijham : pure dance before the conclusion
It is believed to have origins in the celestial dance of Shiva Parvati and is performed by Gandharvas. It gained prominence in the Manipur valley with the advent of vaishnavism.
The dance lays emphasis on Tandava and Lasya.
It has limited use of mudras and focus is mainly on slow, gracious movements of hands and knee positions.
It is the traditional dance form of Uttar Pradesh. It derives its name from Kathika or story tellers who recited verses from epics with gestures and music.
It is characterised by intricate footworks and pirouettes. It is accompanied by Dhrupad music.
Elements of kathak are :
Ananda : introductory item
Jugalbandi : competitive play between dancer and tabla player.
gat bhaav : Dance without music to outline different mythological episodes.
Kramalaya : concluding piece with fast footwork.
It was primarily practised in Vaishnav monasteries known as Sattras.
The dance narrates mythological stories of Vishnu.
It is generally performed by male monks known as Bhokots.
It has strict rules related to use of hand gestures and footwork.