• First Sangam was attended by gods and legendary saints, it was organized in Madurai. The second Sangam was in Kapadapuram. Tolkapiyyam is the only surviving literary work of this period. It gives information about the politico-social condition of this period.
  • Chola, Chera and Pandya dynasty ruled south India during this period.
  • Chera – ruled over parts of modern kerela. Cheran kings had high military achievements. In this period castes were not known, ancestors and tree worship was known. No superstitions existed.
  •  Chola – rose after the decline of the Sangam. They ended the Pallavas dynasty. Kaveri delta was a seat of Chola power.
  • For sake of efficient administration the empire was divided into Mandalam, Kottams, Nadu, Urs. They were the pioneers of centralized administration.
  • They continued the temple building style of Pallava. Viman style of architecture flourished. Dwarpal and Gana were common in Chola temples.  
  • Base of chola temples had a mythical animal – Yazhi.
  • Tamil literature was at its peak in Chola age.
  •  Pandya – Temples of Pandyas were consisting of Gopuram, Garbagriha, Prakaras, gateways, Viman.
  • The Sangam age was patronized by Pandyan kings.


Indo - Islamic architecture shaped Indian architecture from 7th century with the advent of Islam. It influenced both secular and religious buildings in the subcontinent. 

This type of architecture bears influence of Indian, Islamic, Ottoman Turkish, Central Asian, Persian and Arabic styles.

It replaced the Indian Trabiate style with the Arcuate style.


Trabiate style

Arcuate style





No use of minar


Sand stone construction

Brick, lime and mortar





                1.      Ornamental decorations

                2.      Open space for prayer towards mecca

                3.      Light and open less decorative prayer hall

                4.      Tower or minaret to call for prayer

                5.      Purdah hall system


Lintel in temples                                                                            Fig 1: Lintel

Delhi  Sultanate                                                                                                     

1.      Lodhi's introduced the concept of double dome.


      2.      Agra built by Sikandar shah son of Bahdol Lodi. 

Mughal Period:    

Arch and dome used.

2.   Charbagh style – persian style of dividing garden into four parts by walkways or flowing water.

3.    CalligraphyPietra dura method [ inlay technique of using highly polished and colored stones to create images.

4.      Mortar is used as a cementing agent

5.    Arabesque technique – A continuous stem is drawn which splits into secondary stems and these split again to get reintegrated into main stem.

6.      Use of water as a cooling agent, mirror image and add beauty to the monument.

Note: Khajuraho temple complex was made by the Chandela dynasty. King Dhangadeva built the Kandariya Mahadev temple. Khajuraho consists of both Hindu and Jain temples.


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