Chapter 4: SANGAM AGE [ACADEMY OF POETS]
- First Sangam was attended by gods and
legendary saints, it was organized in Madurai. The
second Sangam was in Kapadapuram. Tolkapiyyam is
the only surviving literary work of this period. It
gives information about the politico-social condition of
- Chola, Chera and Pandya
dynasty ruled south India during this period.
- Chera – ruled over parts of modern
kerela. Cheran kings had high military achievements. In
this period castes were not known, ancestors and tree
worship was known. No superstitions existed.
- Chola – rose after the decline of
the Sangam. They ended the Pallavas dynasty.
Kaveri delta was a seat of Chola power.
- For sake of efficient administration the
empire was divided into Mandalam, Kottams, Nadu, Urs.
They were the pioneers of centralized administration.
- They continued the temple building style of
Pallava. Viman style of architecture flourished. Dwarpal
and Gana were common in Chola temples.
- Base of chola temples had a mythical animal
- Tamil literature was at its peak in Chola
- Pandya – Temples of Pandyas were
consisting of Gopuram, Garbagriha, Prakaras, gateways,
- The Sangam age was patronized by Pandyan
Indo - Islamic architecture shaped Indian
architecture from 7th century with the advent
of Islam. It influenced both secular and religious
buildings in the subcontinent.
This type of architecture bears influence of
Indian, Islamic, Ottoman Turkish, Central Asian, Persian
and Arabic styles.
It replaced the Indian Trabiate style with
the Arcuate style.
No use of minar
Sand stone construction
Brick, lime and mortar
Open space for prayer towards mecca
Light and open less decorative prayer hall
Tower or minaret to call for prayer
Purdah hall system
Fig 1: Lintel
Lodhi's introduced the concept of double
Agra built by Sikandar shah son of Bahdol
Arch and dome used.
Charbagh style – persian style of
dividing garden into four parts by walkways or flowing
Calligraphy – Pietra dura method
[ inlay technique of using highly polished and colored
stones to create images.
Mortar is used as a cementing agent
Arabesque technique – A continuous stem is
drawn which splits into secondary stems and these split
again to get reintegrated into main stem.
Use of water as a cooling agent, mirror image
and add beauty to the monument.
Note: Khajuraho temple complex was
made by the Chandela dynasty. King Dhangadeva built the
Kandariya Mahadev temple. Khajuraho consists of both Hindu
and Jain temples.
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