Garba griha: Houses the chief deity
Mandap: Entrance to the temple which is like a hall.
Shikhara :On top of the garbagriha , it is pyramidal or like a oval.
Vahana: It is the mount of the main deity and is placed before the Garba griha
Nagara School of Temple architecture
Developed in north India.
It followed panchayatan style of temple building. It had a main shrine and subsidiary shrines laid out in a crucified pattern with respect to main shrine.
Presence of mandap in front of the garbagriha.
No water tank present in the temple premise. Temples were built on upraised platforms. Outside the garbagriha, images of ganga and yamuna were placed.
Shikhara were of three types :
Latina : Square at the base and walls curve inward to a point at the top.
Phamsana : They had a broader base and shorter in height than latina ones. They slope upward in a straight line.
Valabhi : They had a rectangular base with roof rising into vaulted chambers.
Shikhara had a kalash on top of it rested on circular base called Amalak.
Inside the temple the walls were divided into three vertical planes "triratha". The ambulatory path around the deity was covered.
These temple premises did not have gopurum (gateways) and boundary walls.
Sub-school of Nagara style - Odisa school
Exterior walls were lavishly decorated but interior walls were plain.
Instead of pillars iron girders were used to support the roofs.
Shikhar was called as "rekhadeuls" which was vertical and then curved inward sharply.
Mandaps were known as "jagmohans", ground plan of the temple was flat. The temple also had a boundary wall like the dravidian style of architecture.
Sun temple at konark, Jagannath temple at Puri and Lingaraj temple at bhubaneshwar.
The Chandel rulers developed this style and it flourished in Central India. The walls of the temples are lavishly decorated on inside and outside.
Sculptures are generally erotic in theme. Temples are made up of sandstone. They have three chambers - garbagriha, mandap and ardha mandap. Vestibular entrance to the garbagriha is present in some temples known as antarala.
Panchayatan style of temple architecture is followed. Even the subsidiary temples have rekha prasad shikhar. Temples are built on high platforms.
Example : Kandariya mahadev temple, lakshaman temple at khajuraho
Solanki school of temple architecture - Rajasthan and Gujarat
Temple walls are devoid of carvings. Garbagriha has been connected to the mandap both internally as well as externally.
Porticos have decorated arched gateways called Torans.
A step tank called surya kund is present in the proximity of the temple. Steps of this tank are full of small temples with wooden carvings.
Temples are east facing so that during equi-noxes sunrays fall directly on the central shrine.
Temple architecture in South India developed under the rule of Pallava king Mahendravarman. These temples had four chronological stages :
Mahendra group : These were rock cut temples known as mandaps.
Narsimhavarman :The mandaps were now divided into rathas. The biggest rath was Dharmaraj rath and smallest one was Draupadi rath. Dravidian style of temple architecture was the successor of this type.
Rajsimhan :Real structural temples in place of rock cut temples.
Nandivarman :Smaller size temples which were similar to dravidian temples.
Dravidian Style of Temple Architecture
Under the patronage of the chola rulers, dravidian style of temple architecture emerged.
Unlike the nagara style, the dravidian temples had high boundary walls.
Front wall had a high entrance gateway known as Gopuram
The temple is laid out in Panchayatan style with a principal shrine and four subsidiary shrines.
On top of the garbagriha, a stepped pyramidal structure is present known as Vimana. This Vimana is absent in subsidiary shrines.
The crowning element of the vimana is known as shikhar and is not like the kalash of the nagara style.
The mandap or assembly hall in front of the garbagriha is connected to it by a vestibular tunnel called Antarala.
Entrance of garbagriha had dwarpal, yaksha and mithuns.
Water tank inside the temple premises is a unique feature of Dravidian style of temple architecture.
Nayaka (Madurai) school of temple architecture
Architecturally similar to Dravidian school but had more features : Gopuram built here were the largest in the world. Eg: Meenashi Temple has the highest gopuram in the world. Gopuram building reached its height in the school of architecture.
Presence of Prakarns or huge corridors around the garbagriha alongwith roofed ambulatory passageways.
Temple structure was filled with intricate carvings.
Vesera (Karanataka) school of temple architecture
Flourished under the later chalukya rulers. It combined architectural styles of Nagara and dravidian schools.
Emphasis was vimana and mandapa.
Open ambulatory passage
Pillars , doorways, ceilings were decorated with intricate carvings. Ex: Badami temples
Vijaynagar style of temple architecture
Patronised by the rulers of vijayanagar. This art and architecture was influenced by the islamic culture of bijapur.
Walls of the temples were now decorated with carvings and geometric patterns.
Gopurams were built on all sides and the enclosing walls were large.
Multiple mandaps were present and the central mandap became the Kalyan mandap.
Hoysala style of temple architecture (near Mysore)
Multiple shrines were built around the central pillared hall.
Panchayatan style was modified to a star pattern known as Stellate plan.
The interior and exterior walls were intricately carved.
Shikhars were present on all shrines and were interconnected.
Pala school of architecture
Flourished in Bengal under the patronage of Pala dynasty which were buddhists and Sena dynasty which were Hindus. This school of architecture was reflection of both cultures.
Terracota bricks were the main building material.
Buildings had a curve or sloping roof like seen in bamboo roofs. Thus this roof became popular as bangla roof and was adopted by mughal architects. Temples had curving shikhar crowned by a Amalaka. Sculptures were made of both stone and metal and had lustrous finish.