• Wherever a mass destruction to property takes place due to protests or thereof, the High court may issue suo motu action and set up a machinery to investigate the damage caused and to award compensation related thereto.

  • Where there is more than one state involved, such action may be taken by the Supreme Court; In each case, the high court or Supreme Court, as the case may be, appoint a sitting or retired high court judge or a sitting or retired District Judge as a Claims Commissioner to estimate the damages and investigate liability.

  • An Assessor may be appointed to assist the Claims Commissioner; The Claims Commissioner and the Assessor may seek instructions from the high court or Supreme Court as the case may be, to summon the existing video or other recordings from private and public sources to pinpoint the damage and establish nexus with the perpetrators of the damage.

  • The principles of absolute liability shall apply once the nexus with the event that precipitated the damage is established. The liability will be borne by the actual perpetrators of the crime as well as organisers of the event giving rise to the liability – to be shared, as finally determined by the high court or Supreme Court, as the case may be.

  • Exemplary damages may be awarded to an extent not greater than twice the amount of the damages liable to be paid. Damages shall be assessed for damages to public and private property, those causing injury or death to a person or persons; and cost of the preventive and other actions by the authorities and police.

  • The Claims Commissioner will make a report to the high court or Supreme Court which will determine the liability after hearing the parties

  • Social sin is any action or norm which is unacceptable as per societal normative standards. For e.g. blasphemy is a social sin in several societies (Satanic verses by Salman Rushdie is banned in India) or even clothing pattern such as not wearing Burkha may be a social sin.

  • There is no standard definition of social sin as the contours of this word may extend to politics, social life, technology, economics etc. Moreover what may be social sin in one society may not be sin in other for e.g. polyandry may be widely practiced in TRIBAL WORLD (such as TODA) but not in modern urban life.

  • We can abstain from social sin through increasing Social awareness through friends, neighbours, media, history etc. and self-regulation by weighing choices against social standards.

  • If we perform social sin then we run the risk of getting socially ostracized, discriminated, harassed or even victimized For e.g. Khap Panchayats have declared people out caste for practicing socially forbidden practices.

  • However, every social sin may not be unethical. At times, what is considered socially sin may be morally and legally justified for e.g . opening temples for low caste people may be a social sin but torally tenable.

  • The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) has released the Global Liveability Index 2018. The index ranks 140 global cities based on their living conditions. The liveability index quantifies the challenges that might be presented to an individual’s lifestyle in 140 cities worldwide, and assesses which locations provide the best living conditions.

    The list ranks 140 cities on a range of factors, including:
    Political and social stability.
    Access to healthcare.

  • The survey rates cities worldwide based on 30 qualitative and quantitative criteria, which fall into five general categories:
    Health care
    Culture and environment.

  • The LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) is a massive observatory for detecting cosmic gravitational waves and for carrying out experiments. The objective is to use gravitational-wave observations in astronomical studies.

  • The project operates three gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Two are at Hanford in the state of Washington, north-western US, and one is at Livingston in Louisiana, south-eastern US. The proposed LIGO India project aims to move one advanced LIGO detector from Hanford to India.

  • About LIGO- India project: Known as the LIGO-India project, it is piloted by Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Department of Science and Technology (DST).

  • The LIGO-India project will be jointly coordinated and executed by three Indian research institutions: the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Pune and Department of Atomic Energy organisations: Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar and the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore.

  • Benefits for India: The project will bring unprecedented opportunities for scientists and engineers to dig deeper into the realm of gravitational wave and take global leadership in this new astronomical frontier. The LIGO-India project will also bring considerable opportunities in cutting-edge technology for the Indian industry which will be engaged in the construction of the eight-km long beam tube at ultra-high vacuum on a levelled terrain.

  • With its establishment, India will join the global network of gravitational wave detectors. Establishing an observatory in India also assumes importance because the further the distance between the observatories, the greater will be the accuracy in locating gravity waves.

  • What are Gravitational Waves? Gravitational waves are the ripples in the pond of spacetime. The gravity of large objects warps space and time, or “spacetime” as physicists call it, the way a bowling ball changes the shape of a trampoline as it rolls around on it. Smaller objects will move differently as a result – like marbles spiraling toward a bowling-ball-sized dent in a trampoline instead of sitting on a flat surface.

  • Pendency-3.3 crore pending cases at all levels. Huge vacancies in the High Courts and lower courts -Low judge to population ratio (In India it is 18 per ten lakh population) Overburdened judiciary - 70 hearings per day with 2 minutes per hearing, on an average No fixed time in which cases have to be disposed

  • 2-Delay and denial of Justice Judicial procedure is very complex, costly and dilatory - low conviction rates (25% as per NCRB data) jail as they cannot afford bail or guarantors to stand surety 3-Lack of transparency in appointmentscollegium system under Article 124 + 214 of the Constitution has come under severe criticism owing to i ts opacity, denting its credibility

  • 4-Lack of Coherent Database no scientific maintenance of data to analyse the problem meaningfully (245th law commission). 5-Malpractices by lawyers The rich and powerful hire lawyers who stall court proceedings by taking advantage of archaic regulations and loopholes in law 6-Bogus filled PILs

  • 7-low infrastructurehere will not be enough court halls, chambers, or staff, if all the vacancies are filled. No use of ICT. Way forwards 1-Increasing Judge population ratio to by 5 folds (by Law Commission recommendation) Setting up of fast track courts, Gram Nyaylayas, local courts, family courts (1 per district), 'morning' and 'evening' courts - Promoting alternate dispute redressal mechanism EG. Lok Adalats, Mediation Cells 2-Fixed timelines for various stages of trial - Guidelines to avoid unwanted adjournments 3-Brining Judiciary under the ambit of RTI

  • 4-Minimum tenure to Chief Justice of India 5-Transparent complaint redressal mechanism against judicial malpractices 6-Constitution of All India Judicial Service may also be a welcome step 7-Infrastructure Need for upgrading and building judicial infrastructure in mission mode

  • 8-Building up a judicial database to assess the performance of the courts as an institution. 9-Digital technology with new packages like database, ERP tools, court management practices which will help in increasing the productivity of courts

  • 10-Evidence recording through video-conferencing for speedier trials Training and orientation of the judiciary, especially in frontier areas of knowledge,like bio-genetics, IPR and cyber laws, need attention