The year 2018 has turned out to be the landmark for India in terms of achievements in Sports arena. Government’s two pronged approach to sports – nurture topsports talent and find untapped sports stars at the grassroots, has yielded positive outcome. India recorded its best ever performance this year in the Gold Coast Commonwealth Games with 66 Medals, Jakarta Asian Games with 69 Medals and Para Asian Games with 72 Medals. The achievements of Department of Sports during the year2018 are as under:-
Khelo India School Games (KISG), 2018: 1st Khelo India School Games, 2018 were held between 31st January to 8th February, 2018 3507 Players from 29 States and 7 Union Territories participated. Medal Tally- 199 Gold + 199 Silver +275 Bronze medals Biggest State contingents: Maharashtra- 331 players Haryana – 388 players Delhi – 359 players Support staff at KISG : 875 Coaches, 578 Managers Technical conduct by 578 nationally and internationally certified Technical Officials. Accommodation provided in various Hotels through M/s. Thomas Cook International: 868 number of Volunteers participated Approximately 550 Talents is to be identified during the Talent Identification process.
Overall championship Results: Haryana – 38 Gold, 26 Silver 38 Bronze: Total: 102 Medals Maharashtra - 38 Gold, 26 Silver 38 Bronze: Total: 111 Medals c. Delhi - 38 Gold, 26 Silver 38 Bronze: Total: 94 Medals
1178 sports talents have been identified & they will be imparted training for next 8 years with annual expenditure on each athlete of Rs. 5 lakh. In Swimming, Srihari Natraj from Karnataka won 6 Gold Medals and 1 Silver Medal. He broke Senior National 100 Mtr Backstroke record in KISG 2018. His previous time was 57.20 seconds and he gave 56.90 in KISG. He qualified for Asian age group and Youth Olympic Games.
In Shooting, Manu Bhaker from Haryana with the score of 387 achieved the new National record Air Pistol Women Qualification round. In the finals also, Manu Bhaker with the score of 241.1 broke her own National record, achieved in Kerala, 2017. She is also quota winner of Youth Olympic Games, 2018.
In Athletics, Abhishek Singh of U.P won the Gold in Shotput with a throw of 18.73 m and was declared the best Boy athlete. In 100 m hurdles,Aparna Roy of Kerala secured the Gold medal with a timing of 14.02 sec and was declared the best Girl athlete.
3. Republic Day Parade Tableau of the Ministry adjudged best among all Ministries: · Tableau of the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports for Republic Day 2018 was adjudged the best Tableau among all the Tableaux of the Ministries/Departments of the Government of India. In a ceremony in New Delhi on 28th January, Secretary (Sports) received the Trophy and Certificate for best Tableau from Hon’ble RakshaMantri. Theme of the Tableau of the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports was Khelo India.
India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL) made contribution of Rs.10.00 Crore to the NSDF. This was the third installment of contribution made by the IIFCL making the total contribution Rs 30.00 Crore. The IIFCL contribution is being utilized for promotion of sports in the disciplines Badminton, Archery and Para Sports by way of support to sportspersons in these disciplines for their customized training and other services and setting up of Academies/Support to Academies in these disciplines.
National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) was established with the objective of promotion of excellence in sports through support to top level sportspersons who are medal prospects in Olympics and other major international competitions and creation of sports infrastructure in priority disciplines etc. The Fund accepts contributions from private/public corporate sectors, other legal bodies like Trusts/Societies, individuals etc.
Performance in Commonwealth Games, 2018: India competed at the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast, Australia from 4 to 15 April 2018. It was India's 18th appearance at the Commonwealth Games. With 26 Gold medals and a total of 66 medals (26 Gold, 20 Silver and 20 Bronze), India finished 3rd for the tournament. It was India's best position since the 2010 Commonwealth Games.
University Grants Commission has recently graded the Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior in the highest category i.e. Category-I Deemed to be University as per the provisions of the UGC [Categorization of Universities (Only) for Grant of Graded Autonomy] Regulations, 2018 vide its letter dated 19.06.2018. Prior to it, this Institute has been accredited as A++ by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and awarded with the "Excellent Institute of Physical Education in India" during 11th National Education Summit 2017 and 2nd National Higher Education Summit for Skill Development held at VigyanBhawan, New Delhi.
Revised Guidelines for MaulanaAbulKalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy: With a view to rationalize and simplify the selection of top performing university in sports for award of MaulanaAbulKalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy, the Union Sports Minister approved the revised guidelines for MAKA Trophy on 8.6.2018. Under the revised guidelines, the applications from the universities, which were hitherto used to be invited and scrutinized by the Association of Indian Universities (AIU), will be invited by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports/Sports Authority of India. Scrutiny of applications will also be done by the Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports/Sports Authority of India. Criteria for calculation of marks for selection of universities for MAKA Trophy has been revised. Tournaments which are held more than once a year will not be considered for computation of marks. The amount of award money for the overall all winner university has been enhanced from Rs. 10 lakh to Rs. 15 lakh and for 1st Runner-up and 2nd Runner-up universities, the amount of award money has been enhanced from Rs. 5 lakh to Rs. 7.5 lakh and Rs. 3 lakh to Rs. 4.5 lakh respectively.
Revision of Pension to Meritorious Sportspersons: In a major step for the welfare of Sportspersons, the Union Sports Minister approved the upward revision of pension to meritorious Sportspersons on 7.6.2018. Under the revision, the rate of pension has been doubled of the existing rate of pension on winning medals in international sports events. The new rates of pension range from minimum of Rs. 12,000/- to maximum of Rs. 20,000/- per month. The rate of pension of medal winners in the Para-Olympics Games and Para Asian Games will be at par with the medal winners in the Olympic Games and Asian Games respectively. The revision in rate of pension will be effective from 1st April 2018.
Scholarship programme under Khelo India: Following the successful conduct of the Khelo India School Games, the Department of Sports took another significant step towards the development of sports on 22.7.2018 and cleared 1178 players for a scholarship programme under Khelo India Talent Identification Development scheme. The scholarship programme is designed to take care of their expenses including training, development, boarding and lodging and tournament exposure apart from offering them out of pocket expense allowance. Under this programme, an annual stipend of Rs. 1.2 lakhs will be given to the players on a quarterly to meet their out of pocket expenses, treating injuries and even smaller but very important elements like local travel for themselves and their parents/ family members.
National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA): the beginning of the year, NADA put it efforts during the 1st Khelo dia School Games, Delhi so that the integrity of sports be maintained and the participating sportspersons may become aware of International Standards for sports integrity and a total 377 dope tests were conducted by NADA to make the school games dope free. In the run up to the Commonwealth Games and Asian Games held in mid 2018, NADA tested as many as 498 Indian Athletes prior to Asian Games, which was the largest testing conducted by NADA before any international games. Out of these, 54 Indian athletes who were training abroad in preparation for the Asian Games, were got tested by NADA in various countries including Czech Republic, Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Thailand and Bhutan. To monitor the Code Compliance activities, World Anti Doping Agency (WADA) audit team audited anti doping program of NADA, India last year. Followed by Corrective Action Report recommended by audit team of WADA, NADA, India has implemented the corrective action in various areas and maintains its Code Compliance. As per the annual statistics report published by World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), the number of anti doping rule violation in India has come down. Such decrease in the number of doping incidence brought India from 3rd to 6th place globally.
National Sports University, Manipur: The National Sports University Bill, 2018, which was introduced in the Lok Sabha on 10.08.2017, for establishing a National Sports University in Manipur as part of a vision to enhance country’s standing in sports, was passed by both Houses of Parliament during the Monsoon Session, 2018. After receiving the assent of the President, the National Sports University Act, 2018 was published in the Gazette of India on the 17th August, 2018.
National Sports University in Manipur will be first of its kind to promote sports education in the areas of sports sciences, sports technology, sports management and sports coaching besides functioning as the national training centre for select sports disciplines by adopting best international practices.
The University will impart Bachelor’s, Master’s and Doctoral programmes in Sports Coaching, Sports Sciences and physical Education in various disciplines. Specialised degree programmes in various sports education and coaching disciplines are envisaged in the future.
Hon’ble Prime Minister laid the foundation stone of the National Sports University in Imphal on 16.3.2018. National Sports University has started functioning from a temporary campus in KhumanLampak Sports Complex, Imphal. First academic session started with Bachelor of Physical Education and Sports (BPES) and B.Sc. (Sports Coaching) Courses with effect from 15.01.2018.
Admission to academic session 2018-19 have also been completed. Apart from BPES and B.Sc. (Sports Coaching), one new post graduate courses viz., MA (Sports Psychology) has been introduced.
National Sports & Adventure Awards 2018: President of India Shri Ram NathKovind on 25th September, 2018 conferred National Sports & Adventure Awards 2018 in a ceremony held at RashtrapatiBhawan.
In National Sports Awards category, the most prestigious Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna was conferred to S. MirabaiChanu (Weightlifting) and ViratKohli (Cricket) while Dronacharya Award, Arjuna Award and Dhyan Chand Award were conferred to 32 sportspersons/coaches in various disciplines.
Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Award was conferred to 10 persons in categories of Land Adventure, Water Adventure and one (1) award to Life Time Achievement category. MaulanaAbulKalam Azad Trophy was conferred to Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar.
Rashtriya Khel ProtsahanPuruskar was conferred to three (3) entities namely RashtriyaIspat Nigam Limited in Identification and Nurturing of Budding & Young Talent category, JSW Steel in Encouragement to Sports through Corporate Social Responsibility and Isha Foundation in category of Sports for Development.
Financial support to Indian Kho Kho team for participation in International Championship: Union Sports Minister approved the participation of Kho Kho team from India at the First International Kho Kho Championship in England from 1st to 4th September, 2018, with financial support from the Government of India. The approval was given for the first time in relaxation of extant guidelines of the Ministry which, inter-alia, lay down that sports disciplines like Kho Kho, which are categorised as “Others”, will not be eligible for financial support for participation in International sporting events.
Commendable performance by Indian Sportspersons in Asian Games, 2018, and Para Asian Games, 2018: Indian sportspersons and teams put a very commendable performance in Asian Games 2018 held at Jakarta and Palembang (Indonesia) from 18th August to 2nd September, 2018. India won 69 medals (15 Gold, 24 Sliver and 30 Bronze) and was placed at 8th position in medals tally.
Hon’ble Prime Minister felicitated the medal winners of Asian Games 2018 on 5th September, 2018.
In a separate function organized by the Ministry to felicitate medal winners of Asian Games 2018 on 4th September, 2018, the medal winning sportspersons were also given cash awards. The gold medal winners were given Rs. 30 lakh Silver medalistsRs. 20 lakh and bronze medalistsRs. 10 lakh.
India finished overall 9th in the medals tally with 72 medals (15 Gold, 24 Silver and 33 Bronze medals) the highest ever by India at an Asian Para Game (APG), outdoing the previous best by a huge margin.
Youth Olympic Games: India finished overall 14th in the medals tally with 13 medals (3 Gold, 9 Silver and 1 Bronze medals) the highest ever by India at Youth Olympic Game (YOG), in Buenos Aires, Argentina, outdoing the previous best.
Financial Assistance to Sportspersons: The Ministry of Youth Affairs & Sports is operating PanditDeendayalUpadhyay National Welfare Fund for Sportspersons (PDUNWFS) with a view to assisting outstanding sportspersons of the past, living in indigent circumstances, who had brought glory to the country in sports.
The 2018 AIBA Women's World Boxing Championships was held at KD Jadav Indoor Stadium at New Delhi, India during November 15-24, 2018.In the finals of the light flyweight category Mary Kom of India beat Ukrainian boxer Hana Okhota to win the gold, creating history by becoming the first woman boxer to win six gold medals in the AIBA World Boxing Championships. India stood 3rd in the medal tally with one gold, one silver and two bronze.
Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management in Sports: In order to strengthen the overall sports ecosystem in the country and to develop expertise in various sectors, this Ministry has funded and guided Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Rohtak to commence a 2-year course. This Post-Graduate Diploma in Business Management in Sports from academic year 2018-19 at par with other Business Management courses of the Institute has already started.
Support to Universities and Medical Colleges under NCSSR scheme A scheme of National Centre of Sports Sciences and Research (NCSSR) which aims to support high level research, education and innovation with respect to high performance of elite athletes has been started. The scheme has two components: One is setting up of NCSSR at NIS, Patiala, and other is focused on creation of support to Sports Sciences Department in select Universities and Sports Medicine Departments in select Medical Colleges/ Institutes/ Hospitals. MYAS would fund Rs.25 crore to selected Universities and Rs.12.5 crore to selected Medical Colleges/ Institutes/ Hospitals over a period of 5 years and later they would become self-reliant.
The Sports Medicine Departments of the Medical Colleges will offer post MBBS degree i.e. MD in Sports Medicine and Diploma in Sports Medicine. The Sports Science Department of the universities will offer degrees such as M. Sc. in Sports Physiology, Sports Biochemistry, Sports Nutrition, Sports Biomechanics, Sports Training Methods; MPT in Sports; M.A in Sports Psychology; and Certificate Course in Sports Anthropometry.
In connection with second component of the scheme, following 6 Universities and 6 Medical Colleges/ Institutes/ Hospitals have been selected in different parts of the country for setting up Departments of Sports Science and Sports Medicine therein respectively. List of Universities/Institutions selected for funding to support Sports Sciences department: (i) Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (ii) Lakshmibai National Institute of Physical Education, Gwalior (iii) National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad (iv) Annamalai University, Tamilnadu (v) Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, Rajasthan and (vi) University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal.
List of Universities/Hospitals/Medical Colleges selected for funding to support Sports Medicine department: (i) King George Medical university, Lucknow (ii) VardhmanMahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (iii) Pandit Bhagwat Dayal Sharma University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana (iv) Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bengaluru, Karnataka (v) KEM Hospital and Seth G S Medical College, Mumbai and (vi) Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal.
Scheme of Special (Cash) Awards to Medal Winners in International Sports Events and their Coaches: Rs. 11.02 cr. has been given to winning sportspersons under this scheme during 2018-19 so far.
The five iconic sites are as follows: Rajasthan – Amer Fort. Assam – Kaziranga. Goa – Colva Beach. Kerala – Kumarakom. Bihar – Mahabodhi Temple.
Significance: The shortlisted agencies would become ‘Monument Mitras’ through the innovative concept of ‘Vision Bidding’, which will give them the opportunity to associate their CSR activities with a heritage site if the Vision Bid is selected.
Adopt a Heritage Project: What is it? The ‘Adopt a Heritage Scheme’ of Ministry of Tourism was launched on World Tourism Day i.e. 27th September, 2017. This project is a key initiative of Ministry of Tourism in close collaboration with Ministry of Culture and Archeological Survey of India (ASI), to develop the heritage sites / monuments and making them tourist-friendly to enhance the tourism potential and their cultural importance in a planned and phased manner.
How it works? The project plans to entrust heritage sites/monuments and other tourist sites to private sector companies, public sector companies and individuals for the development of tourist amenities. The project aims to develop synergy among all partners.
Monument Mitras:Successful bidders selected for adopting heritage sites / monuments by the Oversight and Vision Committee shall be called as Monument Mitras. The basic and advanced amenities of the tourist destinations would be provided by them. They would also look after the operations and the maintenance of the amenities. The ‘Monument Mitras’ would associate pride with their CSR activities.
Significance of this project: Adopt a Heritage project is meant to address the challenges that the Archaeological Survey of India and other government bodies are facing in operating tourism infrastructure at heritage sites. By allowing private players to build, operate and maintain “tourist-friendly” and “world class amenities at these sites, the expectation is that the project will boost domestic and international tourism.
The Bill makes instant triple talaq void and illegal. It seeks to make the practice of instant triple talaq a punishable offence with imprisonment of up to three years.
What’s the issue all about- A brief history: The case dates back to 2016 when the Supreme Court had sought assistance from the then Attorney General Mukul Rohatgi on pleas challenging the constitutional validity of “triple talaq”, “nikah halala” and “polygamy”, to assess whether Muslim women face gender discrimination in cases of divorce.
Opposing the practice of triple talaq, the Centre told the top court that there is a need to re-look at these practices on grounds of gender equality and secularism. The Supreme Court later announced the setting up of a five-judge constitutional bench to hear and deliberate on the challenges against the practice of ‘triple talaq, nikah halala’ and polygamy.
The issue gained political momentum on March 2017 when the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) told the Supreme Court that the issue of triple talaq falls outside the judiciary’s realm and that these issues should not be touched by the court. However, on August 22 this year, the Supreme Court set aside the decade-old practice of instant triple talaq saying it was violative of Article 14 and 21 of the Indian Constitution.
A Bill in this regard: In September, the government had proposed the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill in the Parliament and sought to make triple talaq a punishable offence under the law. At first, the Bill was passed in the Lok Sabha but it failed to secure a majority in the Rajya Sabha. The Bill was postponed till the winter session of Parliament. Following this, an ordinance was issued by the government after the bill failed to get cleared in Rajya Sabha amid protests by the Opposition.
Key provisions of the Bill: The Bill makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal.
Definition: It defines talaq as talaq-e-biddat or any other similar form of talaq pronounced by a Muslim man resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce. Talaq-e-biddat refers to the practice under Muslim personal laws where pronouncement of the word ‘talaq’ thrice in one sitting by a Muslim man to his wife results in an instant and irrevocable divorce.
Offence and penalty: The Bill makes declaration of talaq a cognizable offence, attracting up to three years’ imprisonment with a fine. (A cognizable offence is one for which a police officer may arrest an accused person without warrant.) The offence will be cognizable only if information relating to the offence is given by: (i) the married woman (against whom talaq has been declared), or (ii) any person related to her by blood or marriage.
The Bill provides that the Magistrate may grant bail to the accused. The bail may be granted only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.
The offence may be compounded by the Magistrate upon the request of the woman (against whom talaq has been declared). Compounding refers to the procedure where the two sides agree to stop legal proceedings, and settle the dispute. The terms and conditions of the compounding of the offence will be determined by the Magistrate.
Allowance: A Muslim woman against whom talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children. The amount of the allowance will be determined by the Magistrate.
Custody: A Muslim woman against whom such talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek custody of her minor children. The manner of custody will be determined by the Magistrate.
Significance: Time has come to put an end to the suffering of Muslim women who have been at the receiving end of instant talaq for several years. More than 20 Islamic countries have already banned the practice.
The decision was taken as the exercise to enumerate citizens in the NRC, a list of Assam’s residents, could not be completed within the specified date of December 31, 2018.
Background: On December 6, 2013, the government issued the first notification setting a deadline of three years for completion of the entire NRC process. Since then, five extensions have been given by the government. The draft NRC was published on July 30 and included the names of 2.9 crore people of the total 3.29 crore applicants.
Why is NRC being updated in Assam? Officially, the NRC process will address the issue of illegal migrants, specifically from Bangladesh. The National Register of Citizens was first published in 1951 to record citizens, their houses and holdings. Updating the NRC to root out foreigners was a demand during the Assam Agitation (1979-1985).
Why is March 24, 1971 the cut-off date? There have been several waves of migration to Assam from Bangladesh, but the biggest was in March 1971 when the Pakistan army crackdown forced many to flee to India. The Assam Accord of 1985 that ended the six-year anti-foreigners’ agitation decided upon the midnight of March 24, 1971 as the cut-off date.
Who is a citizen in Assam? The Citizenship Act of 1955 was amended after the Assam Accord for all Indian-origin people who came from Bangladesh before January 1, 1966 to be deemed as citizens. Those who came between January 1, 1966 and March 25, 1971 were eligible for citizenship after registering and living in the State for 10 years while those entering after March 25, 1971, were to be deported.
Theme: “Science, Technology and Innovation for a Clean, Green and Healthy Nation.”
National Children’s Science Congress (NCSC): National Children’s Science Congress (NCSC) is a nationwide Science Communication programme started in the year 1993. It is a programme of National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi.
It is a forum children of the age-group of 10-17 years, both from formal school system as well as from out of school, to exhibit their creativity and innovativeness and more particularly their ability to solve a societal problem experienced locally using by method of science.
About National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC): It is mandated to communicate science & technology to masses. The programmes of the Council aim at building capacity for informed decision making in the community.
NCSTC encourages research in areas of S & T communication, training of communicators, development of books, manuals, posters, exhibitions, films, radio programmes, and television programmes on different facets of science & technology and recognizing outstanding efforts through awards and incentives all over the country.
It is a registered body guided by a Board of Governors with headquarters at Delhi. It has about eighty members spread in all states and union territories. Volunteers in districts lend it great strength and capability for implementing projects that reach the common man and woman.
National Investment & Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) are one of the important instruments of National Manufacturing Policy, 2011. NIMZs are envisaged as large areas of developed land with the requisite eco-system for promoting world class manufacturing activity.
Objective of Special Economic Zones – To promote exports, while NIMZs are based on the principle of industrial growth in partnership with States and focuses on manufacturing growth and employment generation. NIMZs are different from SEZs in terms of size, level of infrastructure planning, governance structures related to regulatory procedures, and exit policies.
For the Financial Year 2016 – 2017, Rs. 3.35 crores has been earmarked under the ‘Scheme for Implementation of National Manufacturing Policy’ for ‘Master Planning of NIMZs’ and Technology Acquisition and Development Fund (TADF).
The development and promotion of various disciplines of sports including selection of players for various national and international sports competitions is the responsibility of the concerned National Sports Federations (NSFs).
The NSFs work in an autonomous environment and the Government is not directly involved in their functioning, including selection of sports persons. To ensure transparency in selection process Government has issued guidelines according to which selection of sportspersons for major international events is to be done by a Selection Committee.
Implementing Various Sports Promotional Schemes: Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports (MYAS) through Sports Authority of India (SAI) has been implementing various sports promotional schemes to tap sports talent across the country irrespective of their financial status. Under the Schemes – SAI Training Centers (STC), Special Area Games (SAG), sports talents belong to rural, tribal, coastal, hilly and backward areas of the country are selected.
The selected trainees are provided financial support in the form of expert coaches, sports equipment, boarding and lodging, sports kit, competition exposure, educational expenses, medical/insurance and stipend as per the approved scheme norms.
Under the Scheme of Assistance to National Sports Federations, the Government supports the identified sportspersons, including those from weaker sections of society/teams for intensive coaching through national coaching camps, foreign exposures/competitions etc.
Customized Training: Under Target Olympic Podium Scheme (TOPS), customized training is being provided to identify sportspersons at the state-of-the-art sports institutes/academies within the country and abroad.
Background: National Sports Federations – National Sports Federations (NSFs) are autonomous bodies registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860.
Sports Authority of India (SAI) – Apex national sports body of India It is established in 1984 by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports for the development of sports in India.
Context: Dwijing Festival, an annual river festival, has begun on the bank of River Aie in Assam.
About Dwijing Festival: Dwijing Festival is an annual river festival celebrated in the Bodoland Territorial Area Districts (BTAD) region of Assam. The festival provides a platform of earning for the people in the region by putting in to focus the business activities for the better economy generation through rural tourism. The festival also aims to provide help to the flood victim families through charity generation and distribution.
About River Aie: River Aie originates from the Himalayan Mountains of Bhutan and flows through the Chirang and Bongaigaon districts of Assam before joining the river Brahmaputra.
Context: Public Enterprises Survey 2017-18 has been tabled in the Parliament. The survey mapped the performance of central public sector units.
Highlights: Indian Oil Corporation, ONGC and NTPC emerged as the top three most profitable PSUs in 2017-18, while BSNL, Air India and MTNL incurred the highest losses for the second consecutive year.
Dal lake: Context: The famous dal lake in Srinagar is frozen. The city recently witnessed the lowest temperature ever in 11 years at minus 7.6 degree.
About Dal: Also known as the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, dal lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the “Jewel in the crown of Kashmir” or “Srinagar’s Jewel”. The lake is also an important source for commercial operations in fishing and water plant harvesting.
The lake is part of a natural wetland, including its floating gardens. The floating gardens, known as “Rad” in Kashmiri, blossom with lotus flowers during July and August.
The lake is located in the Zabarwan mountain valley, in the foothills of the Shankracharya hills, which surrounds it on three sides. The lake has four main interconnected basins namely, Hazratbal, Bod dal, Gagribal and Nagin.