To achieve full immunization of at least 90% children by 2020, preponed now for 2018. Full immunization coverage to missed out and left out children and pregnant women during routine immunization rounds, against 7 life threatening diseases.
Achievements: Mission Indradhanush has completed four phases covering 528 districts wherein: 3.15 crore children vaccinated 80.58 lakh children fully immunized 80.63 lakh pregnant female immunized 91.94 lakh vitamin A doses administered 79.73 lakh ORS packets distributed 2.73crore zinc tablets distributed
Intensified Mission Indradhanush launched by PM on 8th October 2017 at Vadnagar, Gujarat to cover 121 districts, 17 urban areas and 52 districts of NE states (total 190 districts/urban areas across 24 states) for intensified immunization campaign.
Maternal & Neonatal Tetanus Elimination India has validated Elimination of Maternal & Neonatal tetanus from the country in May 2015, well before the global target date of December 2015.
In concurrence with the World Polio End Game strategy, IPV was introduced in November 2015 in six states and expanded throughout the country by June 2016. Till December’17, nearly 3.87 crore doses of IPV have been administered to children across the country since its introduction.
Rotavirus Vaccine: Launched in March 2016 in 4 states- Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Odisha, to reduce the burden of diarrhea caused by Rotavirus.
It has been expanded to 9 states namely Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu & Madhya Pradesh. Nearly 1.42 crore doses of Rotavirus vaccine have been administered to children by December’17,
Measles Rubella (MR) vaccine: MR vaccination campaign targeting children from 9 months up to 15 years of age, was launched on 5th February 2017 in 5 states -Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Lakshadweep & Puducherry.
MR campaign has been completed in 13 states/UTs namely, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Puducherry, Lakshwadeep, Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Telangana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Kerela (ongoing in Arunachal Pradesh and Odisha). Around 7.7 crore children have been vaccinated till March 2018 in these states.
Japanese Encephalitis vaccination in India: Japanese Encephalitis vaccination in children introduced in Routine Immunization in 230 JE endemic districts subsequent to the completion of JE campaign in these districts in 2015.
Around 15.6 crore children aged 1-15 years have been vaccinated with JE vaccine. Special JE re-campaign was carried out in all 38 JE endemic districts of Uttar Pradesh where 99.20 lakh children were administered JE vaccine. Adult JE campaign has been completed in all identified 31 districts. Under this campaign, around 3.29 crore adults were vaccinated with JE vaccine
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV): To reduce child deaths due to pneumonia, a major cause of child mortality. It has been launched on 13th May, 2017 in 3 states i.e. Himachal Pradesh , Uttar Pradesh (6 districts) and Bihar (17 districts). Subsequent expansion of the vaccine to entire state of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh over a period of three years has been planned. Till January’18, more than 14 lakh doses of PCV have been administered to children across above mentioned areas.
JANANI SURAKSHA YOJANA · Institutional delivery in the country has risen to 78.9% (NFHS-4, 2015-16) from 47% (DLHS-3, 2007-08).
Objective: To provide assured, comprehensive and quality antenatal care, free of cost, universally to all pregnant women on the 9th of every month.
PMSMA guarantees a minimum package of antenatal care services to women in their 2nd / 3rd trimesters of pregnancy at designated government health facilities.
Achievements: More than 1.16 crore antenatal check-ups conducted. Conducted at over 12900 health facilities across all State/UTs Over 4900 volunteers registered on PMSMA portal across all State/UTs More than 6 lakh high risk pregnancies have been identified
Maternity Benefit Act amended to enhance maternity leave period for working women from 12 weeks to 26 weeks
Elimination of Diseases Elimination of Communicable diseases – Action plans to eliminate Leprosy by 2018, Measles by 2020 and Tuberculosis by 2025 being implemented. ‘
Affordable & Quality HealthCare for All – Availability of Cheaper Medicines · 958 essential medicines, including lifesaving drugs, brought under Price Control regime, giving the consumer total benefit Rs. 9241 Crores (As on 31.03.2018) ü Cardiac Stents to cost 85% lesser ü Knee Implants to cost 69% lesser
Total of 4155 Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Kendras are functional in 35 States/UTs of the country, as on 01.10.2018 from 99 in May 2014
Scheme’s product basket has been expanded to cover more than 700 medicines and 154 surgicals aids and consumables covering all therapeutic categories Prices are 50-90% less than that of branded drugs
· Out of the total 719 districts in the country, 634 districts have already been covered by opening of PMBJP Kendras.
February 1,2018: Budget speech: Launch of Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri National Health Protection Mission (AB-PMNHPM) in 2018-19
April 14, 2018: Inauguration of First Health and Wellness Centre at Bijapur, Chattisgarh by PM
Objective: To provide comprehensive Health Coverage to 10 crore poor and vulnerable families (approx. 50 crore beneficiaries) upto Rs. 5 lakh per family per year for secondary and tertiary hospitalization. After the launch of AB-PMNHPM, RSBY/SCHIS will be subsumed in it.
Features: No Family Size, ensuring all members of designated families specifically girl child and senior citizens get coverage.
Cashless and paperless access to services for the beneficiary at the point of service in any (both public and private) empanelled hospitals across India. The benefit coverage of PM-RSSM will be Rs. 5,00,000.
Coverage of more than 10 Crore beneficiary families (identified through SECC database).
Every family figuring in defined SECC Database will be entitled to claim benefit under the scheme. No person will be denied benefits under the scheme in the absence of Aadhaar.
Flexible Implementation Arrangement –States would have the option to use an existing Trust/ Society/ Not for Profit Company [SNA] or set up a new Trust/ Society/ Not for Profit Company [State Health Protection Mission Agency] to implement the scheme.
1.5 lakh Sub Centres & Primary Health Centres being transformed as Health & Wellness Centres (HWCs) to provide Comprehensive Primary Healthcare services to community. Services provided close to homes/community
HWC to provide Comprehensive Primary Health Care package which includes in addition to primary health care, geriatric health care, palliative care and rehabilitative care services 2/3rd of the budget be used for primary health care
A joint initiative with Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation to leverage achievements of complementary program-Swachh bharat Mission (SBM) and Kayakalp
Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PM-NDP) Provision of free dialysis services for poor and subsidized services to all patients under NHM. The scheme started with 219 districts in 2016 across the country, which has been expanded to cover 356 Districts.
6 Dialysis machines in every facility - will be extended up-to 10 machines ü More than 22.84 dialysis session held ü More than 2.38 lakh patients benefitted ü 497 operational dialysis units/centers ü 3330 operational dialysis machines
Kayakalp awards launched to promote cleanliness, hygiene and infection control practices in public health facilities. Implemented in District Hospitals in 2015-16, extended to CHCs and PHCs in 2016-17 and to urban areas in 2017-18.
International Yoga Day-IDY Promoting Yoga worldwide and at home. First IDY observed on 21st June in New Delhi followed by Chandigarh in 2016 and Lucknow in 2017. UN declares 21st June as IDY.
Inscribed in the list of intangible cultural heritage of Humanity in the UNESCO Included in sports infrastructure and equipment of universities & colleges and also included as part of physical activity in all the schools
Health Ministry formulated the National Health Policy 2017, after a gap of 15 years, to address the current and emerging challenges necessitated by the changing socio-economic and epidemiological landscapes since the last National Health Policy was framed in 2002.
Focus is on preventive and promotive health care while the Primary healthcare is to be comprehensive and universal. Patient centric approach listening to the voice of patients, quality care, inter sectoral convergence, access, affordability and use of technology are among its salient features.
· The Act adopts a rights-based statutory framework for mental health in India and strengthens equality and equity in provision of mental healthcare services to protect the rights of people with mental health problem to ensure that they are able to receive optimum care and are able to live a life of dignity and respect.
· It aims to end the epidemic by 2030 in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations.
· A person living with AIDS cannot be treated unfairly at employment, educational establishments, renting a property, standing for public or private office or providing healthcare and insurance services
The AMRIT pharmacies provide drugs for cancer and cardiovascular diseases along with cardiac implants at a 60 to 90 per cent discount on prevailing market rates.
· As of now 124 stores have been opened so far across 22 states selling over 5200 drugs (including cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, stents, etc), implants, surgical disposables and other consumables at significant discount of up to 50 % on market rates.
· Total number of patients serviced till15.3.2018 : 60.49 lakh
· The drugs having MRP Value of Rs. 566.34 Crores have been dispensed at Rs. 254.36 Crores, resulting on saving of Rs. 311.99 Crores to the patients.
Objective: It aims at correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable/reliable tertiary healthcare services and also augmenting facilities for quality medical education in the country.
Components: PMSSY has two components 1.Setting up of new AIIMS like institutes in underserved regions of the country: and 2.Up-gradation of existing Govt Medical Colleges (GMCs). Progress: · 20 News Super Speciality AIIMS –like Hospitals being set up · 73 Government Medical Colleges being upgraded
Details: · 6 AIIMS Functional o Raipur, Patna, Jodhpur, Bhopal, Rishikesh and Bhubaneshwar o Full functionality to be achieved by September, 2018 · 8 Additional AIIMS Sanctioned
o Rae Bareli (UP), Mangalagiri near Guntur in Andhra Pradesh, Kalyani in West Bengal, Nagpur in Maharashtra, Gorakhpur in UP, Bathinda in Punjab, Kamrup District in Guwahati, Assam, Kothipura in Bilaspur District, Himachal Pradesh
· 3 more AIIMS have been put up for approval to Cabinet Site being selected for another 3 AIIMS
Total 92 Medical College (46 Govt. and 46 Pvt.) have been set up in last four years, which resulted increasing of 15354 MBBS seats (6519 in Govt. Colleges and 8835 in Pvt. Colleges).
600 MBBS seats were increased in Centrally Sponsored Scheme "Establishment of new Medical Colleges attached with district/referral hospitals" Total 12646 PG Seats (Broad & Super Specialty Course) have been increased in last four years.
1500 PG Seats Centrally Sponsored Scheme “Strengthening and Upgradation of State Government Medical Colleges for increase in Post Graduate seats”
· 435 Districts Non Communicable Diseases (NCD) Clinics and 2145 NCD Clinics at CHC Setup.
· More than 3 crore persons screened at NCD Clinics till 15th March 2018
· Population based initiative taken for Prevention, Screening and Control for common NCDs in more than 150 districts. More than 70 lakh people have been screened under this initiative.
· 34 State Cancer Institute/Tertiary Care Cancer Centers approved to monitor all Cancer related activities of their respective areas.
· National Cancer Institute being setup at Jhajjar at Haryana.
· Apex level National Organ & Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) has been set-up for establishing country-wide network of transplant and retrieval hospitals and tissue banks.
· Five Regional Organ and Tissue Transplant Organizations (ROTTO) have been established in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal and Chandigarh UT.
· National Registry to provide online system for procurement and distribution of organs and tissues has been established under NOTTO.
· 24x7 Toll free Helpline No. 1800114770 has been made operational.
· Organ Donation Rate (number of deceased organ donors per million population) has increased by four times since 2012-13.
· Treatment for drug sensitive TB is provided through a network of more than 400,000 DOT Centres
· Diagnosis of Drug Resistant TB drug susceptibility testing at 74 culture & drug susceptibility testing (C-DST) laboratories, of which 55 laboratories are also equipped with rapid molecular test namely Line Probe Assay (LPA).
· House to house screening of TB symptoms covering 5.5 crore population under Active Case Finding.
· Rs. 500 per month for nutritional support to all TB patients for the duration of TB treatment through DBT
· Test and Treat’ Policy launched for covering all patients with Anti Retro Viral (ARV) irrespective of CD count orclinical stage.
· More than 1 lakh additional HIV infected people brought under the ambit of ARV treatmentin 8 months since launch of “Test and Treat” policy
· More than 11.75 lakh people infected with HIV are on ARV treatment; 54% higher than the March’14
· More than 2 Crores pregnant women are being tested for HIV in a year with a goal to achieve elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV by 2020
· Medical Device Rules 2017 notified. These provide for risk-based classification, licensing and regulation of medical devices.
· 344 irrational fixed dose combinations (FDCs) prohibited.
· New National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM, 2015) finalized. It now includes 376 medicines.
· Coronary stents added in NLEM, 2015 and their ceiling prices fixed to provide relief to patients.
· Packaging and Labelling Rules: Size of specified health warnings on tobacco products enhanced w.e.f. 1st April, 2016 to 85% of the principal display area of tobacco product packs.
· Quitline number has been included in new specified health warnings which will come into effect on 1st September, 2018.
· Inclusion of Bidi in Tax Net: Bidi has been covered in the tax net and kept along with all tobacco products in the slab of 28% under the Goods and Service Tax (GST).
· Reduction in prevalence of tobacco use: As per findings of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2016-17), the prevalence of tobacco use has reduced by six percentage points from 34.6% to 28.6% during the period from 2009-10 to 2016-17. The number of tobacco users has reduced by about 81 lakh (8.1 million).
· National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP) has been expanded to all the States/UTs covering about 405 districts against 21 States covering 42 districts in 2013-14.
Malaria: · Reduction of 28% in reported positive cases of Malaria 840838 in 2017 (provisional) as compared 1169261 in 2015.
Reported deaths due to malaria reduced by 73 % in 2017 to as compared in 2015.
National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination (2017-22) launched, 2017.
· Upscaled diagnostic facilities from 394 in 2013 to 618 in 2018
· The Case Fatality Rate (CFR) for Dengue (deaths per 100 cases) was sustained at 0.2% in last 3 years
Reduction of 37.7% in cases of Kala-azar: from 9241 in 2014 to 5758 in 2017 Reported deaths due to Kala-azar reduced to 100% 11 in 2014 to Nil deaths in 2017.
LF is targeted for elimination. Out of 21 endemic states/UTs, 5 state/UTs achieved LF elimination target.
On the occasion of 86th anniversary, the Indian Air Force has launched an innovative mobile health App named ‘MedWatch’ in keeping with the Prime Minister’s vision of ‘Digital India, Ayushman Bharat and Mission Indradhanush’. The app is conceived by the doctors of IAF and developed in house by Directorate of Information Technology (DIT) with ZERO financial outlay.
‘MedWatch’ will provide correct, Scientific and authentic health information to airwarriors and all citizens of India. The app is available on www.apps.mgov.gov.in and comprises of host of features like information on basic First Aid, Health topics and Nutritional Facts; reminders for timely Medical Review, Vaccination and utility tools like Health Record Card, BMI calculator, helpline numbers and web links.
‘MedWatch’ is the first mobile health app in the three Armed Services and was launched by Air Chief Marshal BS Dhanoa PVSM AVSM YSM VM ADC, Chief of the Air Staff, on Air Force Day,’ at New Delhi on 08 Oct 18. The app was also displayed and showcased to the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India at Air House in the evening.
The MedWatch mobile health app is an Indian Air Force initiative and a small contribution to our citizen.
About Environment Pollution Control Authority (EPCA): EPCA was constituted with the objective of ‘protecting and improving’ the quality of the environment and ‘controlling environmental pollution’ in the National Capital Region. The EPCA also assists the apex court in various environment-related matters in the region.
EPCA is Supreme Court mandated body tasked with taking various measures to tackle air pollution in the National Capital Region. It was notified in 1998 by Environment Ministry under Environment Protection Act, 1986.
Composition: Besides the chairman, the EPCA has 14 members, some of whom are the environment secretary of the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), chairperson of the New Delhi Municipal Council, transport commissioner of the NCT, the commissioners of various municipal corporations of Delhi and professors at IIT Delhi and Jawaharlal Nehru University.
Functions: To protect and improve quality of environment and prevent and control environmental pollution in National Capital Region. To enforce Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP) in NCR as per the pollution levels.
Key facts: Under the scheme, the children of construction workers would get financial assistance for their education in Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and polytechnics.
While an ITI student will be entitled to get financial assistance of Rs. 23,600, a diploma student to get Rs. 26,300 per annum.
Outreach: Under the scheme, an ITI student will get assistance of Rs. 23,600 a year and a diploma student will get Rs. 26,300.
Need: A petition has been filed in the court contending that the “influx” of illegal immigrants into Tripura amounted to ‘external aggression’ under Article 355 of the Constitution. Also, the presence of illegal immigrants violates the political rights of the citizens of Tripura said the PIL.
Concerns: Tripura was a predominantly tribal State, but now it has become a non-tribal State. Indigenous people who were once the majority has now become a minority in their own land claimed the PIL. Uncontrolled influx of illegal migrants from Bangladesh to Tripura has caused huge demographic changes in Tripura.
The award recognizes the measures taken by ESIC for extension of coverage of the Scheme for Promoting Registration of Employers and Employees (SPREE), reducing the rate of contribution rates for 24 months in newly implemented areas and raising the wage limit for coverage under the ESI Act.
About International Social Security Association: The ISSA is the principal international organization for Social Security Organizations, Govts. and Departments of Social Security. The ISSA was founded in 1927 under the auspices of the International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva.
It promotes excellence in social security administration through professional guidelines, expert knowledge, services and support to enable its Members to develop dynamic social security systems.
The ESI Corporation hosts ISSA Liaison Office for South Asia at New Delhi. The Liasion Office coordinates with the Member countries and Social Security Institutions in Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Iran on activities of ISSA related to social security.
Facts for Prelims: The regional social security forum for Asia and the Pacific is a triennial Forum, which is the most important social security event in the region.
The International Social Security Association (ISSA) invites submissions for the ISSA Good Practices award for Asia and the Pacific regions, on the occasion of the triennial regional forum. The Forum provides unique opportunities to CEOs and Managers of ISSA Member Institutions to discuss key social security challenges and share their experiences.
In this regard, Government has amended provisions of crop insurance scheme in consultation with various stakeholders after review of its working for the last two years. The amended provisions of the scheme have been implemented from October 2018.
As per the new provisions: Certain horticultural crops have been brought under ambit of PMFBY on experimental basis. Damages due to individual fields due to incidents of localised disasters like water logging, land slide, cloud bursts, hailstorms and fire too are brought under scheme.
Henceforth, insurances firms will also have to spend 0.5% of their earnings from annual premium to advertise provisions of the scheme. Fines in cases of delay in clearing insurance claims for crop damages have been proposed.
In case firm delays insurance clearances beyond two months, it will have to pay an annual interest of 12%. Similarly State government too will have to pay interest of 12% in case of delay in release of state’s share of subsidy in premium to insurance firms.
About PMFBY: In April, 2016, the government of India had launched Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) after rolling back the earlier insurance schemes viz. National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS), Weather-based Crop Insurance scheme and Modified National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (MNAIS).
Premium: It envisages a uniform premium of only 2% to be paid by farmers for Kharif crops, and 1.5% for Rabi crops. The premium for annual commercial and horticultural crops will be 5%.
The scheme is mandatory for farmers who have taken institutional loans from banks. It’s optional for farmers who have not taken institutional credit.
Objectives: Providing financial support to farmers suffering crop loss/damage arising out of unforeseen events.
Stabilizing the income of farmers to ensure their continuance in farming. Encouraging farmers to adopt innovative and modern agricultural practices.
Ensuring flow of credit to the agriculture sector which contributes to food security, crop diversification and enhancing growth and competitiveness of agriculture sector besides protecting farmers from production risks.
About New Horizons Mission: New Horizons was launched on 19 January 2006, and has been travelling through space for the past nine years.
Just over a year after launch, it passed Jupiter and used the giant world’s gravity to boost its velocity, as well as making scientific observations. This boost shortened the time to reach Pluto by years.
The mission will complete what NASA calls the reconnaissance of the classical solar system, and it makes the U.S. the first nation to send a space probe to every planet from Mercury to Pluto. The probe has traveled more than 3 billion miles to reach Pluto.
New Horizon’s core science mission is to map the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, to study Pluto’s atmosphere and to take temperature readings.
The spacecraft was launched in 2006, before the big debate started over Pluto’s status as a planet. In August of that same year, the International Astronomical Union reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet.
Facts for Prelims: The Kuiper belt sometimes called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a region of the Solar System beyond the planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun. It is similar to the asteroid belt, but it is far larger—20 times as wide and 20 to 200 times as massive.
What is Canine Distemper Virus? Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) is a viral disease that infects the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
Dogs who have not been vaccinated for Canine Distemper are the most at-risk. While the disease can also be contracted when improperly vaccinated or when a dog has high susceptibility to bacterial infection, these cases are rare.
CDV can be spread through direct contact (licking, breathing air, etc.) or indirect contact (bedding, toys, food bowls, etc.), though it cannot live on surfaces for very long. Inhaling the virus is the primary method of exposure. There is no known cure for CDV.
What’s the issue? The magnificent Asiatic lion is under threat. Twenty-three lions have died in as many days in the eastern part of Gujarat’s Gir sanctuary. This case is more worrisome as the big cat population in Gujarat is the last of the Asiatic lions in the wild.
Facts for Prelims: Gir sanctuary is the only wild population of Asiatic lions in the world. It is listed in Schedule I of Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, has been categories as Endangered on IUCN Red List and is listed Appendix I of CITES.
It will be headed by National Security Advisor. Its members include the NITI Aayog vice chairman, cabinet secretary, the chiefs of the three defence services, the RBI governor, the foreign secretary, the home secretary, the finance secretary and the defence secretary.
The secretary of the Department of Defence Production and Supplies, the scientific adviser to the defence minister and the secretary, cabinet secretariat will also be members of the panel.
The other members are secretary, department of revenue; secretary, department of atomic energy; secretary, department of space; director, Intelligence Bureau, and secretary, National Security Council Secretariat.
Representatives of other ministries and departments will be invited to the meetings of the group as and when necessary.
Functions: It will assist the National Security Council and undertake among other tasks, a long-term strategic review of country’s security affairs. It will be the principal mechanism for inter-ministerial coordination and integration of relevant inputs in the formulation of national security policies.
Meetings: The NSA will convene the meetings of the SPG and the cabinet secretary will coordinate implementation of the group’s decisions by union ministries and departments, and state governments.
Context: Researchers have confirmed the presence of the elusive Eurasian Otter one of the least-known of India’s three Otter species in the Western Ghats after more than 70 years.
While the species is widespread across Europe, northern Africa and several south Asian countries, it is not as frequently seen as smooth-coated or small-clawed otters in India.
Key facts: Otters are members of the mammalian family called Mustelidae. They are shy and have elusive habits, adapting to a variety of habitats ranging from marine to freshwater environments. IUCN Status: Near Threatened. It is protected under the Wildlife Protection Act (1972).
Major threats to Asian otter population are loss of wetland habitats due to construction of largescale hydroelectric projects, conversion of wetlands for settlements and agriculture, reduction in prey biomass, poaching and contamination of waterways by pesticides. Poaching for pelt and other body parts that are believed to possess therapeutic properties.
Few nomadic hunting tribes eat otter flesh. Reductions in prey biomass (fish stocks) and infrastructural developments have led to disappearance of otters from the many streams and rivers which were once major otter habitats.