• This is a learning algorithm that you use when the output labels Y in a supervised learning problem are all either zero or one i.e. binary classification problems.

• Given an input feature vector X maybe corresponding to an image that you want to recognize as either a cat picture or not a cat picture, you want an algorithm that can output a prediction, $$\hat{y}$$, which is known as estimate of Y.

• More formally, you want $$\hat{y}$$ to be the probability of the chance that, Y is equal to one given the input features X. So in other words, if X is a picture you want $$\hat{y}$$ to tell you, what is the chance that this is a cat picture?

• Given x, $$\hat{y} = P( y = 1 | x), where 0 \leq \hat{y} \leq 1$$

• The parameters used in Logistic regression are:

• The input features vector: $$x \in R^{n_x}$$ where $$n_x$$ is the number of features.

1. The training label: $$𝑦 \in 0,1$$

2. The weights: $$w \in R^{n_x}$$ where $$n_x$$ is the number of features.

3. The threshold: $$𝑏 ∈ R$$

4. The output: $$\hat{y} = \sigma(w^Tx + b)$$

5. Sigmoid function: $$s = \sigma(w^Tx + b) = \sigma(z) = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-z}}$$ • $$(w^Tx + b)$$ is a linear function (ax + b), but since we are looking for a probability constraint between [0,1], the sigmoid function is used. The function is bounded between [0,1] as shown in the graph above.

• Some observations from the graph:

1. If 𝑧 is a large positive number, then $$\sigma(z) = 1$$

2. If 𝑧 is small or large negative number, then $$\sigma(z) = 0$$

3. If 𝑧 = 0, then $$\sigma(z) = 0.5$$

• So from previous data X is an X dimensional vector, given that the parameters of logistic regression will be W which is also an X dimensional vector, together with b which is just a real number.

• So given an input X and the parameters W and b, how do we generate the output $$\hat{y}$$? Well, one thing you could try, that doesn't work, would be to have $$\hat{y}$$ be w transpose X plus B $$(w^Tx + b)$$, is a linear function of the input X.

• But this isn't a very good algorithm for binary classification because you want $$\hat{y}$$ to be the chance that Y is equal to one. So $$\hat{y}$$ should really be between zero and one, and it's difficult to enforce that because W transpose X plus B can be much bigger then one or it can even be negative, which doesn't make sense for probability, that you want it to be between zero and one.

• So in logistic regression our output is instead going to be $$\hat{y}$$ equals the sigmoid function applied to this quantity. This is what the sigmoid function looks like (figure below).

• • It goes smoothly from zero up to one. When you implement logistic regression, your job is to try to learn parameters W and B so that $$\hat{y}$$ becomes a good estimate of the chance of Y being equal to one.

• To train the parameters 𝑤 and 𝑏, we need to define a cost function.

• Recap: $$\hat{y}^{(i)} = \sigma(w^Tx^{(i)} + b)$$, where $$\sigma(z^{(i)}) = \frac{1}{1 + e^{-z^{(i)}}}$$

• $$x^{(i)}$$ the i-th training example

• Given $${(x^{(1)}, y^{(1)}), (x^{(2)}, y^{(2)}), ... , (x^{(m)}, y^{(m)})}$$, we want $$\hat{y^{(i)}} \sim y^{(i)}$$

• Loss (error) function: The loss function measures the discrepancy between the prediction $$\hat{y}^{(i)}$$ and the desired output (y^{(i)}). In other words, the loss function computes the error for a single training example.

• $$L(\hat{y}^{(i)}, y^{(i)}) = \frac{1}{2} (\hat{y}^{(i)} - y^{(i)})^2$$

• $$L(\hat{y}^{(i)}, y^{(i)}) = -(y^{(i)} log(\hat{y}^{(i)}))+(1 - y^{(i)})log(1 - \hat{y}^{(i)})$$

• If $$y^{(i)} = 1; L(\hat{y}^{(i)}, y^{(i)}) = -log(\hat{y}^{(i)})$$ where $$log(\hat{y}^{(i)})$$ and $$\hat{y}^{(i)}$$ should be close to 1

• If $$y^{(i)} = 0; L(\hat{y}^{(i)}, y^{(i)}) = -log(1 - \hat{y}^{(i)})$$ where $$log(1 - \hat{y}^{(i)})$$ and $$\hat{y}^{(i)}$$ should be close to 0

• Cost function

• The cost function is the average of the loss function of the entire training set. We are going to find the parameters w,b that minimize the overall cost function.

• $$J(w,b) = − \frac{1}{m} \sum_{i = 1}^{m} L(\hat{y}^{(i)}, y^{(i)}) = − \frac{1}{m} \sum_{i = 1}^{m} [y^{(i)}log(\hat{y}^{(i)})−(1−y^{(i)})log(1−\hat{y}^{(i)}) ]$$