In the beginning as economy developes and
pollution increases due to industrialization and urbanization. In the
later stage pollution declines due to structural changes in society from
manufacturing to services.
PARIS SUMMIT 2015
$100 billion by 2020 for adaptation and mitigation to be provided by
developed countries obligatorily and others voluntarily.
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions were decided to be
formed after the Warsaw summit, 2013. India submitted its I.N.D.C in
2015. Submission deadline is 2020 and then after that submit every 5
years and biennial review.INDC may have timeframe for implementation
- INDC may include tagets and implementation time
frame but no punitive action if rules not followed.
- INDC committed so far dont meet the target of reduce GHG's by 55
- INDC havent mobilized financial resources to meet the targets.
- No definition of Climate Finance provided. Double counting of
loans or grants given by multilateral agencies.
- Silent on future of clean technology fund and carbon market of
kyoto. The clean development mechanism isnt popular and countries
pulling out of it.
- Mitigation isnt the focus of paris summit.
The types of funds are:
- Reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation.
Green Climate Fund (GCF) is the largest, with
pledges amounting to US$10.2 billion. The second largest is the Clean
Technology Fund (CTF) with pledges amounting to US$5.3
billion. There is ambiguity about the role of the CTF in the climate
finance architecture post-2020. World Bank administers the
fund and its focus is on mitigation.
The GCF was established as an operating entity of the financial
mechanism of the UNFCCC in 2011 and is expected
to be a major channel for climate finance from developed to
The highest contribution of US$3 billion has been announced by the
USA, followed by Japan (US$1.5 billion), the UK (US$1.2 billion),
France (US$1.03 billion) and Germany (US$1.0 billion). Some
countries including the USA are yet to sign the pledged amounts.
Global Environment Facility (GEF) was established
as a pilot programme for environmental protection. The current
project cycle is GEF-6 over the years 2014-18. In 1992, when the
Biodiversity and Climate Change Conventions were adopted at Rio de
Janeiro, the GEF was adopted as a financial mechanism for helping
developing countries meet their financing needs. World bank group is
one of its administering agencies.
Green Taxation in India
National Clean Energy Fund receives money from the
Clean Environment cess on coal. This cess has been increasing.
National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change is for
adaptation measures at national and state levels.Rs 350 crore till
2017 and NABARD is the implementation agency.
Renewable Energy Certificate: All energy users like
discoms, captive users and open access consumers have to generate
certain portion of their energy from renewable sources or else
purchase the certificates. 1 cert = 1 MW.
International Solar Alliance
Launched after Paris summit. The countries with land in tropics i.e.
121 and receiving 300 or more days of sunlight. Seeks to mobilize $1000
billion investment by 2030. India to host secretariat
in Gurugram i.e. Gurgaum and has pledged Rs.100 crore to it.
It is a liquid or gaseous fuel produced from biomass. examples are
methanol, ethanol, biodiesel.
Three sources of biofuels:
- Edible:sugar and starch containing edible crops. But these affect
- Non edible: Jatropha, castor, pongamia crops used.
- Algae used to generate fuel.
India's target is 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and
diesel by 2017.
Perform, Achieve and Trade
National mission on enhanced energy efficiency is under the eight
action plans of National Action Plan on Climate Change 2008. Under the
PAT scheme the energy intensive units have been identified and
specific targets have been developed for them.
If these units achieve these targets in access then they receive
energy saving certificates ESCerts. These can be
sold to units that havent been able to achieve their targets. Thus
this scheme laid the foundation of a Carbon Market for the first time
Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Ministry of Power is implementing this
1 ESCert = 1 Metric ton of Oil equivalent. ESCerts can be traded
on power exchanges.