Chapter 14: VOLUME 2
AM, FM, waves are low frequency waves so cant travel long
distances. They are modulated i.e. superimposed over higher
frequency waves so that they can cover longer distances. If
frequency more than 30 Mhz then the waves escape from the
ionosphere ; If they
Agencies under I&B Ministry
Prasar Bharati Corporation
Motto: Bahujan Hitaay, Bahujan Sukhaay. Vaartavali:
First Sanskrit news magazine was launched.
Central Board of Film Certification
There are 4 types of certifications: Unrestricted viewing
[U], Parental Guidance for children under 12 [U/A], Adults
viewing only [A], Specialized groups [S].
The C.B.F.C. is a statutory body under I&B Ministry for
certifying films for viewing.
Issues related to Film Certification:
Central Board of Film Certification has been criticised for inordinate delays in the process of certifying films. The process of film certification is known to take a average delay of 169 days, when the Cinematography Certification Rules and the Cinematography Act allow for a maximum timeline of 68 days. The films are to be certified on a First Come, First serve basis but in some cases particular films were observed as jumping queues.
CAG led audit has also criticised the certification process. Various systemic faults were highlighted such as inordinate delay in granting certification by the CBFC board even though the Examining Committee has granted the approval. The CBFC boards decision is supposed to be a formality after the Examining committee’s decision.
CBFC has been criticised as being an irrelevant institution in today’s world where everything is freely available on social media. The board’s decision to convert many films from A to U/A and U has also been criticised. The appointment of CBFC board members has become political and so films criticising the government are dealt with a tough hand.
- Regulated by News Broadcasters Association
- Avoids hate news, paid news must be clearly marked.
Develop Code of ethics for journalists.
- Broadcasting Contents Complaints Council is a self
regulating body by the Indian Broadcasting Foundation.
Telecommunication licenses of India
Dept of Telecommunication provides three types of licenses:
Infrastructure Providers license
- Towers and cables can be built and this license gives it
the Right of Way for laying down cables.
- Single license for voice and data services
Unified license for Virtual Network operator
- New category permitted by DoT for companies. These
licensees shall buy unused spectrum from companies and
provide last mile connectivity.
Dadasaheb Phalke Award
Highest award in Indian cinema presented annually at
National Film Awards ceremony by Directorate of film
festivals. Started in 1969 and latest recipient is Actor Manoj
Kumar. The award is presented in the honour of Dadasaheb
Phalke the "Father of Indian Cinema".
Phalke directed India's first full length feature
film "Raja Harishchandra" in 1913.
Public Private Partnerships
P.P.P refers to the contract with a private organization by
which the organization shall provide a public asset or
service for a period specified in the contract. The return
on investment is got by the private firm by charging fee for
Infrastructure is a critical aspect on which India is
lagging. Due to poor infrastructure India went from a
agriculture dominated to service sector dominated bypassing
the Manufacturing domination phase. The growth story of
India is referred to as "Jobless Growth"
as output and employment share of Indian manufacturing
haven't changed in last 30 years.
Developed countries shall have aging populations and
savings in the form of pension, retirement funds that need
investment in long term stable projects. The Indian
infrastructure sector can provide such projects with a
stable rate of return and take advantage of these funds.
Recommendations of Kelkar Committee on
- Infrastructure PPP Project
Review Committee - Consists of expert members
from technology, finance, law to review and recommend
action on infrastructure projects which are facing
"Actionable Stress" due to macro-economic factors.
- Infrastructure PPP
Adjudication tribunal: Under a judicial member
as chairperson and consisting of legal and technical/
financial experts to examine matters of disputes in
- Auditing: Disallow
statutory auditing by C.A.G for Special Project vehicles
created under Companies Act. Instead encourage good
governance practices and corporate governance.
- Avoid witch hunting of bureaucrats
and distinguish genuine errors from corruption. Disallow
PSU's from bidding in PPP projects as this hurts private
industries and defeats purose of PPP.
- Avoid PPP for small projects. No PPP without examining
feasibility for a particular project.
On recommendation of Ackworth committee the railway budget
was seperated from the general budget from 1924 onwards.
However Bibek Debroy committee recommended the merger
of Rail and General budget which was accepted and shall be
unified from financial year 2017-18 onwards.
- Rail budget is a publicity stunt to announce populist
schemes however it doesn't have funds to implement
- Size of rail budget has decreased compared to defense so
merging won't decrease outlay.
- Railway shall not be needed to provide dividend payment
to government anymore leading to savings.
- Bio vacuum toilets in trains: They have
anaerobic bacteria that convert human waste into methane
[bio-gas], water, pathogen free compost.
Railway R&D organizations:
- SRESTHA: Special Railway Establishment
for Strategic technology and holistic advancement.
- SUTRA: Special unit for
transportation, research and analytics.
Civil Aviation Policy 2016
India ranks 10th in the number of airline passengers. Its
location is ideal between western and eastern hemispheres.
Steps to improve regional connectivity:
- Max service tax to be 10%.
- Viability gap funding via levy on air passengers from
the Regional connectivity fund should be 80:20 and 90:10
for special category states.
- Maximum 1% VAT on Airline turbine fuel [ATF] and provide
concession on water, sewerage charges.
- No frills airports to be developed to increase regional
Subsidized training at public and private training
schools for pilots to get commercial flight license.
DGCA to get more powers and private security
agencies to be allowed to handle aircraft security.
Coastal areas to get sea plane tourism, air sports
to be allowed.
Airports Authority of India
It is the Air traffic controller of India.
Total 125 airports are there and 26 civil enclaves at defence airports are present.
AAI also manages international , domestic and customs airports in India.
It manages cargo terminals, pasenger terminals and radars and runways in the country.
Directorate General of Civil Aviation
It is the regulator of civil aviation in the Country.
It registers civilian aircrafts.
It issues licence to pilots.
It supervises gliding clubs, investigates minor accidents.
It is the name given to mega road project of the government
to build roads from Gujarat, Rajasthan through Punjab cover
all Himalayan states JK, Uttarakhand, HP, UP, Bihar and move
to Sikki, Assam, Arunachl and All states on Indo - Myanmar
Coastal area of Maharashtra on west front and Bengal on
east front to be connected.
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways to be nodal
agency for implementation.
Construction in border areas shall be supervised by Defense
ministry and Border Roads Organization and ordinary areas
shall be done by National Highways Authority of India.
The main objective is to promote direct and indirect
development and to provide infrastructure to transport goods
to and from ports quickly, cost effectively and efficiently.
It has three main pillars:
- Integrated port development through inter agency
- Port infrastructure enhancement
- Efficient evacuation to and from hinterland.
- Modernizing major and non major ports
- Development of new linkages with rail, inland waterways
and coastal shipping
- Strengthen port and evacuation infrastructure, build
logistic hubs and manufacturing centers.
- Simplify procedures for cargo movements and electronic
- Identify Coastal Economic Zones [CEZ] and State
Sagarmala committee under Chief minister to oversee
operations in states.
- Community development fund for sustainable development
of Community in CEZ.
Ease of doing business: World bank
India ranks low on the “Doing business” rankings of the world bank. The process of deciding the ranking is based on 10 heads. To calculate the ratings of these individual heads, the cities of Mumbai and New Delhi are selected. The one head that India should focus on is “trading across borders”. This is decided by W.B by sending a shipment from Mumbai / Delhi to US and importing a shipment to India. The documentation cost and time and money spent on clearances and customs is calculated. This has brought the rankings down as paperwork is higher and so is cost involved in logistics and delivery. However steps taken by the government like:
- Electronic data interchange to replace paper work.
- SWIFT [Single window interface to facilitate trade]
- ICEGATE [ E-Commerce portal for e-filing services to cargo and trade carriers]
Fig 1: SAGARMALA INDIA
Q.In which of the following activities are Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites used?
1. Assessment of crop productivity
2. Locating ground water resources
3. Mineral exploration
5. Traffic studies
Select the correct answer using the code given below (UPSC CSAT 2015)
1, 2 and 3 only
4 and 5 only
1 and 2 only
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Ans . A
For telecommunications geo-stationary satellites are used.
Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!