Chapter 15: VOLUME 3


Census was started under Lord Mayo in 1872 and till date 15 census have been carried in India. 2011 is the latest census. India's census is the largest in the world as China doesn't carry out such exercises.

Social economic and caste census is carried out by Rural development, Housing and Urban poverty alleviation , Home affairs ministry. Poverty estimation is by NITI aayog, NSSO. World population prospects by UN Dept of Economics and social affairs. Human development report by UN Development program

Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner under Home Ministry handles the exercise. Theme for Census " Our Census, Our Future ".  The census was held in two phases:
  1. House listing and Housing census
  2. Population enumeration

Census Trends

  1. Cost of census taking per person in world is $4.6 and India %0.5. [total cost - Rs 2200 crore]
  2. Highest growth rate in Meghalaya and lowest and only state to have negative growth rate was in Nagaland.
  3. Average age youngest state Meghalaya and oldest kerela.

          Fig 1: Demographic pyramids

India is in Stage 3, most developed countries in Stage 4. In third world countries high population growth negatively affects capital formation as more resources go into consumption.

Ethnic Composition

Tribes in India are of following types on order of arrival:

  1. Negrito - Anadamanese, Onga, Jarwa other andaman tribes
  2. Proto - Australiods - Bhils, Munda
  3. Mongoloids - Nicobar tribes
  4. Mediterranean
  5. Western Brechyphals - Parsis
  6. Nordic - Vedic Aryans

Criteria for inclusion into Scheduled Tribes:

  1. indicates geographical isolation
  2. distinctive culture
  3. can profess any religion
  4. primitive traits ; shyness of contact with other cultures.

No entry or exit into cast possible through marriage. If in case of inter caste marriage child shall take caste of father.

Education Policy: Past and Present

Taxila University was the world's first university located in Gandhar, present day Punjab, Pakistan. It can't be considered as a university in the modern sense as it didn't have purpose built lecture halls, affiliated teachers or hostels.

Nalanda University was a Mahayana university founded by Gupta king Kumaragupta. It was a center of advanced learning and research. It was a Mahayana university. Vikramshila university was founded by Pala king Dharmapal.

Both Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed by General of Mahmud Ghuri, Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji

Valabhi university in Gulf of Khambat was a Hinayana University.

Draft Education Policy 2016

Youth literacy rate [15 - 24 years] is 86% and adult literacy rate [15+ years] is 69%. 28 crore illiterates above Age 7 in India. "Committee for Evolution of New Education Policy 2016" was set up with former cabinet secretary T.S.R.Subramanium as head.

Skills and vocational training:

  1. Nai Manzil: Madrassa passouts to mainstream.
  2. USTTAD - Upgrading skills and training in traditional arts/crafts for development: minorities crafts.
  3. Madan moha malaviya teacher training program

Digital literacy in schools to be encouraged under:

  1. National digital literacy mission
  2. DISHA - Digital shaksharta abhiyaan

Language policy:

  1. At primary level instruction can be in local, regional, mother tongue.
  2. At upper primary level, second language can be English.
  3. At upper primary and secondary level, third language shall be as per State or local authorities decision.

Right To Education Act Problems:

  1. No detention policy till class 8 led to high failures in class 9 and 10.
  2. Teachers didnt have training to do continuous and comprehensive assessment of each student.

Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat

  1. Additional classes for maths, comprehension.
  2. Teacher attendance - 95%, student attendance - 75%; Teacher student ratio - 1:30.
  3. No detention till class 8 but conditional promotion to class 9 if student meets Minimum Standard of Academic Performance.
  4. To reduce failures at class 10 / 12 keep the English, Science, Mathematics papers in two parts. Part A: For those who want to pursue higher education; this shall be tough. Part B: Those who want to pursue vocational courses or courses where English, maths, science not important.

National Fellowship Fund: Tuition fees, learning materials and living expenses of 10 lakh EWS students.

Higher Education Financing Agency [HEFA]: Not for profit company to finance the infrastructure upgrade in top institutions.

Higher education quality control:

  1. 1 university cant have more than 100 affiliated colleges.
  2. Stop mushrooming of colleges.
  3. Restructure NAAC for quality assessment of education institutes.
  4. Colleges to have websites with mandatory disclosures.

SWAYAM: Online Open learning course for self study.

All India Service - Indian Education Service with HRD ministry as cadre controlling authority to be setup.


Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!