Chapter 15: VOLUME 3
Census was started under Lord Mayo in 1872 and till date 15
census have been carried in India. 2011 is the latest census.
India's census is the largest in the world as China doesn't
carry out such exercises.
Social economic and caste census is carried
out by Rural development, Housing and Urban poverty
alleviation , Home affairs ministry. Poverty
estimation is by NITI aayog, NSSO. World
population prospects by UN Dept of Economics and
social affairs. Human development report by
UN Development program
Office of Registrar General and Census Commissioner under Home
Ministry handles the exercise. Theme for Census " Our
Census, Our Future ". The census was
held in two phases:
- House listing and Housing census
- Population enumeration
- Cost of census taking per person in world is $4.6 and
India %0.5. [total cost - Rs 2200 crore]
- Highest growth rate in Meghalaya and
lowest and only state to have negative growth rate was in
- Average age youngest state Meghalaya and oldest kerela.
Fig 1: Demographic pyramids
India is in Stage 3, most
developed countries in Stage 4. In third world countries
high population growth negatively affects capital
formation as more resources go into consumption.
Tribes in India are of following types on order of arrival:
- Negrito - Anadamanese, Onga, Jarwa
other andaman tribes
- Proto - Australiods - Bhils, Munda
- Mongoloids - Nicobar tribes
- Western Brechyphals - Parsis
- Nordic - Vedic Aryans
Criteria for inclusion into Scheduled Tribes:
- indicates geographical isolation
- distinctive culture
- can profess any religion
- primitive traits ; shyness of contact with other
No entry or exit into cast possible through
marriage. If in case of inter caste marriage child shall
take caste of father.
Education Policy: Past and Present
Taxila University was the world's first
university located in Gandhar, present day Punjab, Pakistan.
It can't be considered as a university in the modern sense
as it didn't have purpose built lecture halls, affiliated
teachers or hostels.
Nalanda University was a Mahayana university founded by Gupta
king Kumaragupta. It was a center of advanced learning and
research. It was a Mahayana university.
Vikramshila university was founded by Pala king Dharmapal.
Both Nalanda and Vikramshila were destroyed by General
of Mahmud Ghuri, Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khilji
Valabhi university in Gulf of Khambat was a Hinayana
Draft Education Policy 2016
Youth literacy rate [15 - 24 years] is 86% and adult
literacy rate [15+ years] is 69%. 28 crore illiterates above
Age 7 in India. "Committee for Evolution of New Education
Policy 2016" was set up with former cabinet secretary T.S.R.Subramanium
Skills and vocational training:
- Nai Manzil: Madrassa passouts to
- USTTAD - Upgrading skills and training in
traditional arts/crafts for development:
- Madan moha malaviya teacher training program
Digital literacy in schools to be encouraged under:
- National digital literacy mission
- DISHA - Digital shaksharta abhiyaan
- At primary level instruction can be in local, regional,
- At upper primary level, second language can be English.
- At upper primary and secondary level, third language
shall be as per State or local authorities decision.
Right To Education Act Problems:
- No detention policy till class 8 led to high failures in
class 9 and 10.
- Teachers didnt have training to do continuous and
comprehensive assessment of each student.
Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat
- Additional classes for
- Teacher attendance - 95%, student
attendance - 75%; Teacher student ratio - 1:30.
- No detention till class 8 but
conditional promotion to class 9 if student meets Minimum
Standard of Academic Performance.
- To reduce failures at class 10 / 12 keep the English,
Science, Mathematics papers in two parts. Part A:
For those who want to pursue higher education; this shall
be tough. Part B: Those who want to
pursue vocational courses or courses where English, maths,
science not important.
National Fellowship Fund: Tuition fees,
learning materials and living expenses of 10 lakh EWS
Higher Education Financing Agency [HEFA]: Not
for profit company to finance the infrastructure upgrade in
Higher education quality control:
- 1 university cant have more than 100 affiliated
- Stop mushrooming of colleges.
- Restructure NAAC for quality assessment of education
- Colleges to have websites with mandatory disclosures.
SWAYAM: Online Open learning course for
All India Service - Indian Education Service
with HRD ministry as cadre controlling authority to be
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