Fig 1: Great and little desert of India
The Peninsular plateau is
flanked by Western ghats which are continuous and higher
and Eastern ghats which are smaller and discontinuous. The
coastal plain in West is bigger than the east. The Western
and Eastern ghats meet at Nilgiri hills
The Himalayas are of marine origin and a result of
mountain building process which started 7 crore years
ago. The peninsular region has metamorphosed rocks
dating back to 380 crore years ago. The remaining part
of it is covered by lava flows belonging to Deccan trap
and younger sediments.
Rivers are Himalayan, Deccan, Western coastal and
Inland drainage. Apart from Himalayan all the others are
non perennial. The coastal rivers are mostly in west
coast and inland drainage rivers are in west Rajasthan
and of ephemeral nature.
India has 20 river basins with 12 being major and
remaining 8 are composite. Srinagar is located on the banks of the Jhelum.
Coromandal coast lies between Eastern ghats and Bay of Bengal.
Bay of bengal has 572 islets. The two main islets are Richie and Labyrinth
The Bay of bengal islands [Andaman and Nicobar] are separated by the 10° channel
Barren island is India's only Active volcano.
Saddle peak is the highest peak in the A&N islands.
Arabian islands (Lakshadweep) are separated by the 11° channel. Minicoy is the largest island in that group.
River Kosi is known as the "Sorrow of Bihar".
River Godavari is Dakshin Ganga , it rises in Nashik.
River Damodar is known as the "Sorrow of Bengal".
Chilika Lake in Odisa is the largest salt water lake in India.
Wular lake - Jammu Kashmir is the largest freshwater lake in India.
There are official four seasons in India: Winter,
Pre-monsoon / Summer, Monsoon and Post-monsoon. South
India receives more rainfall than North.In post monsoon,
the North India is usually cloudless from October to
November. Himalayan states being temperate experience
two more seasons like Spring and Autumn.
Flora and Fauna:
The flora is being classified by Botanical Survey of
India, Kolkata which publishes Red Data Book of
endangered species. The Wildlife institute of India has
divided country into 10 zones and India hold 7.5% of
Census 2011 was the 15th census of India. The density
increased to 382 persons / sq. km. The sex ratio
improved to 943 and the literacy rate also improved to
73%. The population has increased every decade since
1901 except during 1911 - 1921. Nagaland only
state with negative growth rate.
Density increased in all states with Bihar being most
dense. Kerela has highest literacy in overall, male ad
female. Similarly Bihar is lowest in overall, male and
female category.[ Person who can read and write are
Kerela and Puducherry only places with above 1000 sex
UP has highest percentage of India's population 16% and
Lakshadweep has lowest.
Total SC's in population are 16.6% with Punjab,
Himachal Pradesh having highest share to their total
population. Mizoram, Meghalaya having highest share to
total population of ST's.
31% of Indians stay in Urban areas.Highest number of
vilages are in UP, MP and Odissa.