Atomic energy and Railway operations are the two sectors
reserved for public sector. Apart from these compulsory
licensing norms are present for few other sectors like
electronics of aerospace, defence equipment, hazardous
chemicals, alcohol and tobacco products and substitutes.
Any industry not listed above needs to file an Industry
Entrepreneurs Memorandum with the Dept of Industrial policy
and promotion no license are needed for such industries.
National Manufacturing Policy
Enhancing share of manufacturing to 25% of GDP and
generate 100 million jobs in the field of manufacturing.
Skill based training to workers making them employable
Easing compliance norms for industries. Simplify
National Investment and Manufacturing zones to be setup.
NIMZ shall be conceived as large industry townships with
state of the art infrastructure, land use based on zoning,
governance structure, fiscal incentives, exit policy, skill
training centers and clean, energy efficient technology.
Make in India
PM Modi announced the Make in India policy on September
2014. It has the following four pillars:
New Processes: To facilitate ease of
doing business the new processes have been designed that
are entrepreneur friendly and can boost startups in
manufacturing and other sectors too.
New Infrastructure: The development of
world class infrastructure supported by State of the art
technologies and advanced communication systems.
Requirement of skills for the industry are identified and
then skill development areas are focused on. IPR
infrastructure too is improved for faster registration.
New Sectors: Manufacturing sectors have
been identified and FDI norms liberated in defence
production, medical devices, construction and railways.
New Mindset: In order to partner with
industry on the economic development of the country , the
government shall act as a facilitator not regulator.
Ministry of Law and Justice
This is the oldest ministry of the government first
established by the Charter Act 1833. Under this act the
power of making legislations was in the hands of Governor
General. After independence the power of making legislations
was conferred in the Parliament.
Constitution, laws are not the only sources of
legislations. There is delegated legislation where the
permanent executive makes laws based on the framework given
by Parliament. Decisions of Supreme court and High courts
are binding on all within the jurisdiction.Local customs and
conventions that are not against any statute are also upheld
in validity by courts.
Personal law comes under concurrent list and so both the
center and the state can make laws for the people.
Triple Talaq vs Uniform Civil Code: Article 44
Imposing a uniform civil code on its citizens might be met with protests by minority groups and an alternative to this option must be explored. Many nations including Israel and Singapore have recognition of Muslim personal law. Neighbours like Sri Lanka too recognize it. Pre independence India also had many leaders like Gandhiji himself who sought to provide constitutional protection to personal laws of Muslims or minorities even Nehru had concurred. However Article 44 went against this and made it a non obligatory duty of the state to have a uniform civil code for its citizens. Personal law provides for protection of customs and traditions which form an integral part of life of communities.
However the Muslim Personal in India is based on English interpretations and not on Quran or Shariah. Thus the Indian version of the Law allows unbridled power to the Husband in matters of divorce. This is in complete contrary to the spirit of the Quranic version which is fair to both parties and requires the husband to convince the court on the grounds for divorce. The Quranic interpretation wants divorce as a last resort after exhaustive efforts of reconciliation have failed. Moreover the wife can seek conditions in the Nikahnama related to provision for pocket money, allowing visit to parents and bar on a second wife.
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The readjustment of Lok Sabha and assembly constituencies
is needed to ensure that all votes have an equal weight. The
current delimitation was done on basis of 2001 census after
a period of 35 years. the Government asper its population
policy has put a freeze on delimitation upto year 2026 to
ensure that states pursue aggresively population
stabilization measures. However the government has continued
to adjust constituency boundaries of states for legislative
bodies and also boundaries of constituency reserved for SC
and ST without affecting the number of seats reserved for
Hence the delimation Act was passed in 2002 and the
delimitation commission was setup. The comission is headed
by a Retd Judge of Supreme Court and ex-officio members are
Election comissioner of India and State Election
The exercise of delimitation is for all states except
J&K and the government cant veto the Delimitation
orders. Even the Supreme court cant intervene in such
Ministry of Labor has launched the Pandit Deendayal
Shramev Jayate karyakram scheme. Under this there are
five schemes to ease doing business and ensure government
work in imparting skill training to people.
Shram suvidha portal: Online filing of compliance of 16
out of 44 forms through a web portal.
Universal Account number: To be provided to subscribers
and can remain same even if job is changed.
Random inspection scheme: Computerized generation of a
workplace that can be inspected. Report of inspection has
to be filed within 72 hours.
Apprentice protsahan yojana: Reimbursement of upto 50%
of the stipend paid to apprentice by a company for two
Rashtriya swasthya bima yojana: Two more social security
schemes can be seeded in the smart cards given to workers
of the organised sector.
Broadcasting corporation of India has been setup in 1997.
It has two wings: All India Radio and Doordarshan.
Prasar Bharati Board:
Chairman - Three year term, part time, age limit - 70
CEO - full time, five year term.
6 Part time members,
Full time member for Personnel and Finance.
Representative of I&B ministry, DG of All India
radio and Doordarshan.
All India Radio:
It has three tier system of broadcasting viz. national,
regional, local. It caters to information, education and
entertainment needs of the country. Today it has 578
transmitters and 407 stations.
It is one of the leading TV organizations in the world.
Registrar of Newspapers: Verifies and
approves titles of newspapers, registers, checks and
establishes circulation claims.
Press Information Bureau: Act as an
interface between government and the media.
Press Council of India: Quasi judicial
autonomous authority created to maintain the freedom of
press and improve quality of news and print media. the
decisions of this body cant be questioned in any court of
Youth Affairs and Sports
India has 65% of its population under 35 years. India shall
become the fourth largest economy by 2020 but its median age
of population will be 28 years unlike US, China and Japan.
To ensure this demographic dividend is utilized India needs
to invest in programs and policies.
National Youth Policy, 2014
Policy aims to propose holistic vision for the youth i.e.
age group 15-29 years and empower them to achieve their full
potential and through them enable India to find its rightful
place in the community of nations.
Create a productive workforce to make sustainable
contribution to India's growth.
Develop a strong and healthy generation to take on
Instill social values and community spirit
Facilitate civic engagement and participation in
Support at risk youth and create opportunity for
disadvantaged and marginalized youth.
Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award
Given to outstanding sportsperson to honor them. It carries
cash prize of Rs. 7.5 lakh
Not more than 15 awards are given per year to sportpersons
who show great achievements in preceding four years at
international stage and outstanding work in current year.
Cash prize Rs. 5 lakh.
Dhyan Chand award for lifetime achievement in
sports and games
Given to coaches who have trained teams enabling them to
achieve awards at international stage.
Boxing coach B.I.Fernandes became the 1st foreign coach to get the award, he is from Cuba
Lodha Panel: Highs and Lows
Lodha Panel reforms for Cricket in India
The Supreme Court mandated the Lodha panel to institute drastic structural reforms in Cricket Administration. This shall have a significant impact on the working of the 30 Cricket associations in India.
Problems faced by Cricket Administrations in India:
The smaller states of North East didn’t have any votes but the larger and hence more prosperous associations like Maharashtra and Gujarat got more than one association and more votes.
Thus this led to a few men holding and retaining power of presidency for a long time. Politicians to started occupying major role in these bodies.
No Age, tenure limits led to mentally and physically infirm members in the Association presidency.
Ministers too were allowed to become office bearers. This led to politicization of sports and led to vote bank creation. Merit based and effective governance was absent.
No financial scrutiny meant that the finances of state associations were handled in unprofessional manner.
Players too did not have say in Cricket Administration. Their interests and rights weren’t safeguarded as they didn’t have a union. India was the only Test playing nation to not have a players union.
Selectors numbered 5 and were from the different zones of India. This meant that there was a large pool of domestic talent to choose from. However there was also a chance of conflict of interest as zonal selectors would choose players from their own zones.
Solutions by the Lodha Panel:
Every state shall get full member status and states with multiple bodies like Maharashtra and Gujarat shall have to give voting power to individual associations in them on rotation basis. Thus in Maharashtra , Mumbai Cricket Association shall get coupled with Maharashtra and get voting power once every two years.
Smaller states in the North east shall get more power in decision making. But these states have hardly any cricketing background and so influential people can use them to win important positions.
No office bearer above age of 70. Fixed term of 3 years and then a three year cooling period. No official can be in power for more than 9 years.
Ministers and Government servants are barred from holding positions. This step shall make a big difference in professionalizing the Cricket Associations.
However a three year term followed by a cooling period will mean that a revolving door situation shall be created which could impact accountability.
Players given right to form association that shall safeguard their interest. This will also get them representation in Cricket associations and say in administrative matters.
Selectors shall be retired test match players. This shall however restrict the pool of selectors. Talented cricketers who have represented the country in ODI’s and T20’s shall be ignored.
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