Chapter 14: VOLUME III

NITI Aayog [National Institution for Transforming India]

Objectives in brief:
  1. Cooperative federalism spirit should be fostered
  2. National developed with active participation of states
  3. grass root planning
  4. progress of vulnerable sections
  5. foster spirit of coordination between think tanks
  6. platform for innovation, entrepreneurship should be built
  7. inter departmental coordination
  8. course correction of plans
  9. technology upgradation and capacity building for plans


  1. Chairman - PM
  2. Vice chairman - PM nominee
  3. 4 Cabinet ministers nominated by PM
  4. CEO - Secretary rank officer
  5. Part time members- from R&D institutions

National Plans of India:

Planning commission was an executive body chaired by the PM. The first chairman was J Nehru. It was created on 1952 and continued to play an important role in planning till 2015 when it was replaced by NITI Aayog.

First Plan:

Focus on agriculture to reduce imports and make country self sufficient. Irrigation and power projects too were thrust areas.

Second plan:

Industrialization was the focus. The aim was to bring economic development with goal to have a socialist pattern in India.

Third plan:

Marked advancement towards self sustaining growth was the aim.

Fourth plan:

The Indo - Pak conflict in 1965 meant that the plan couldnt start immediately. 1966 - 1969 annual plans were there. The fourth plan started in 1969 - 1974.Accelerating development by reducing fluctuations in agriculture.

Fifth to eight five year plans achieved their growth target.

The eleventh and 12th five year plan focused on inclusive development. The theme of 12th plan was "Faster, sustainable and More inclusive growth".

Ministry of Rural Development

Integrated development of rural areas is one obligation of the government.

MG National rural employment guarantee Act

100 days of employment to rural households whose adult members volunteer to do work like building productive assets of quality and durability.

National rural livelihoods mission - Aajeevika

Organize all rural poor households into self help groups and federations at village and higher levels by 2021-22.

PM Gram Sadak yojana

Connect all habitations with 500 or more people with all weather roads and for special category states or desert or backward tribal states connect habitations of 250+ with all weather roads.

Indira Awaas Yojana

Assistance to BPL families who lack housing or have inadequate housing to build a house. No contractor can be employed for this purpose.

Deendayal Upadhayay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana

Convert the demographic surplus of India into demographic dividend and turn rural India into the preferred source for skilled labor. Reduction of poverty by ensuring the poor in rural areas can get access to sustainable employment with a regular wage. Target is rural youth - 15-35 years.

The Project Implementing agencies should place atleast 75% of the trained youths.

Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana

MP's shall choose 3 villages to convert to adarsh gram by 2019 out of which one has to be done by 2016. Then from 2019-2024 one village per year shall be chosen and turned to adarsh gram.
The scheme has no money allocation but aims for holistic development of villages by enabling community to be participative.

Integrated watershed management program

Harnessing, conserving, developing wastelands; increase ground water table; conserve water; sustainable agriculture practices; increase agro productivity and improve household incomes.

Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation

It was setup as a ministry in 2011 to handle policy making, implementation and be a nodal agency for flagship program's like National Drinking Water Program for drinking water and Swatchh Bharat Mission for sanitation. However water and sanitation are state subjects.

National Rural Drinking water program

It is a part of Bharat Nirman mission that focuses on providing safe drinking water to rural areas.

Swatchh Bharat Abhiyaan

Launched on October 2, 2014 and to be achieved by 2019, October 2. The mission aims to make all statutory towns of the country open defecation free by constructing toilets. the rate of toilet building to be 10% [48000 daily] from current 3% [14000 daily]. Toilets to be built in all schools of the Country.

Bharat Nirman

It has 6 components of which safe drinking water is one. there were two phases of Bharat Nirman of which phase 2 ended on 2011-12 and no additional funds were accorded to it later.

Official YouTube Channel of UPSCFEVER - #1

Ministry of Urban Development

Urban development is a state subject and so the ministry provides a coordinating and monitoring role via centrally sponsored schemes.


Launched in 2005 the project focused on planned development on cities and towns with focus on improving efficiency of delivery mechanisms and ensuring community participation and making such delivery systems more responsive to people.

The scheme had two components:

  1. Basic services for urban poor
  2. Urban infrastructure and governance.

Urban Infrastructure and Governance [U.I.G]

65 mission cities have been targeted like heritage cities, state capitals and million plus cities. Schemes like Bus rapid transit system, water supply, drainage , sanitation and construction of roads and flyovers.

Sub schemes of JNNURM are also U.I.G for satellite townships around seven mega cities and U.I.G for small and medium towns.

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation A.M.R.U.T

Providing basic services to all households and building amenities in cities that improve life of all especially poor and disadvantaged.


  • Every household should have a tap and assured water supply and sewerage connection
  • develop greenery and well maintained open spaces
  • develop infrastructure for non motorized transport like cycling, walking. Encourage public transport to reduce pollution and congestion

Smart Cities

Promote cities that give a clean, green environment, decent quality of life, sustainable development and core infrastructure with application of 'Smart' solutions.

Core infrastructure to be provided:

  • assured electric , water supply and sanitation like solid waste management.
  • efficient urban mobility and public transport
  • health and education
  • digital infrastructure and e-governance. Citizens participation
  • safety, security of women, children, aged.
  • urban mobility, good public transport and affordable housing.

Official YouTube Channel of UPSCFEVER - #1


Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!