Dept of Science and Technology has devoted its attention on
strengthening of the pool of scientist and technologists
capable of carrying out globally competitive R&D,
nurturing R&D institutions, building capacity of
institutions for technology commercialization, providing
benefits of S&T to society and policy formulation for
The dept is also undertaking implementation of National
Mission on Preserving Himalayan ecosystem and National mission
on Strategic knowledge for climate change under the National
action plan for climate change.
Science technology Innovation Policy
Science Research and Innovation system for high
technology led path for India [SHRISTI] aims to make India one
of the top five of six knowledge centers. Dept has established
Policy research Cell in academic institutes to develop and
design new programs and action plans for science and
Science and Engineering Research Board
Increase in the monthly stipend of SERBYoung
Scientist to Rs. 55000 pm and continuation of the post
doctoral fellowship program under Indo US Science and
Technology Forum for three years.
Women scientist scheme
To provide support to women scientist to pursue
research in basic and advanced sciences.
Survey of India
National survey and mapping organization established in 1767.
Provide base maps for expeditious and integrated
Maintain topographical map of India of various scales.
Participation in projects of seismology, glaciology,
geodetic surveys, Indian scientific expedition to
Support to countries under bilateral commitments related
to survey like capacity building and technology transfer.
Survey of large scale development projects like dams,
Certify maps of private players and demarcates external
boundary of India and inter state boundaries too.
Promoting innovations in Individuals, Startups,
Aim to support individual innovators which will enable to
inclusive development. It also provides grants to autonomous
institutions for state of the art technology development and
work in the field of certain thrust areas of the department.
Dept of Atomic Energy
Established in 1954 engaged in the development of nuclear
technologies and radiation technologies in various fields.It
is also spearheading nuclear technology development and
India's three stage nuclear program.
NPCIL is the organization under DAE that handles
construction, design and operation of nuclear reactors.
Apsara, India's first atomic reactor at Tarapur, Maharashtra
was built with the help of General Electric, USA. The first
reactor at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan was built with the help of
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, HQ Mumbai is an independent
body under Environment Protection Act, 1986 and Atomic
Energy Act that monitors safety at nuclear installations.
Ministry of Shipping and Ministry of Road transport and
highways are coordinating policies and programs of various
modes of transport except airlines and railways.
Currently Indian Railways has the largest rail network in
Asia and the world's second largest under a single
Roads are approx 47 lakh km with national highways 1 lakh
km with 40% of traffic, state highways are 1.5 lakh km and
rest are other roads.
National Highways Authority of India is a
body to maintain National Highways appointed by the central
government. Chairman, 6 full time and 4 part time members
are present. The NHAI also completing the Golden
Quadrilateral project [Delhi - Mumbai - Chennai - Kolkata -
Delhi], Connect all major ports to highways, North- South
& East West i.e. Srinagar to kanyakumari and Silchar to
Border Roads Development Board and its
executive arm Border Roads organization
functions to develop roads in border areas.
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70% of India's trade by value and 90% by volume moves
through the Maritime route. It is the most efficient mode of
transport for industry. Inland waterways authority of India
is the regulator of inland waterways. Inland transport
though has good capacity but currently only 1% of cargo
payment is from inland transport. Allahabad Haldia are the
oldest streches declared as inland waterways.
It is the oldest and the only riverine port of India.
The first major port on the East Coast to be commissioned
Formulation of national policies and regulation and
development of national civil air transport service. It also
handles the administrative supervision over rail safety
commission that handles the safety in rail travel
Bureau of Civil Aviation Security - 1978
It handles the training, coordination, monitoring,
inspection of civil aviation security personnel.
Airports Authority of India
It is the main agency that handles building of airports
throughout the length and breadth of India.
Air traffic service throughout the 2.8 million square
nautical miles of India
Management of airports and civil enclaves at defence
GAGAN - GPS Augmented Geo navigation system
Developed by AAI and ISRO to use the integrity and augment
the GPS signals for precision needs of civil aviation.
To provide helicopter services to the oil sector, make
helicopter services available to remote and hilly regions
and provide charter services for travel and tourism.
The Ministry of Water resources, river development and
ganga rejuvenation handles policy formulation for the water
resources sector, command area development, ganga and its
tributary rejuvenation and inter state water disputes. 1869
billion cubic meters is the totalavailability of water out
of which 1123 BCM is usable out of which 690 BCM is surface
water and 433 BCM is replenishable ground water.
Integrated Ganga Conservation Mission for development of
ghats and river beautification at fronts.
National Water Mission
One of the eight missions of the National Action Plan on
Comprehensive water database
increase water use efficiency by 20%
focus on vulnerable and over exploited areas
Promotion of basin level integrated water resource
National Water resource council and National
PM is the chairman, Vice chairman is the Union minister for
water resources, concerned minister of state or union
ministers , chief ministers of state and administrators of
union territories are members.
Salient features of the policy
National water framework law for optimum conservation of
interstate resources andriver valleys
Grants to states to upgrade technology
Water resource authority shall be setup
Community participation in water conservation projects.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program
Loan assistance to states for completing minor/major
irrigation projects that are in the advanced stage of
Central Water Commission
Headed by a chairman, it has three wings Research, Planning
and projects and Design. Each wing has a Additional
secretary level officer to supervise. The CWC also has
regional offices for coordination with states and training
The main function is coordination with states for
implementation of projects that involve conservation,
control, utilization of water resources for purpose of
irrigation, drinking and power generation.
Ministry of Social justice and empowerment has two
departments Dept of Social justice and empowerment and Dept
of Empowerment of people with disabilities. Amongst the 2.68
crore people with disabilities which are 2.21% of India's
population 1.5 crore are male and 1.1 crore are female.
Protection of Civil Rights
This act prohibits untouchability and extends to the whole
Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes [ Atrocities]
Act contains provisions for punishments for
offences committed by persons other than SC and ST's on SC
Tribal Sub Plan
Started in the fifth five year plan for rapid socio -
economic development of tribal people.
Funds provided under TSP of the state have to be equal
to the proportion of ST in the state.
Tribal's and tribal areas of a state get benefit of
funds under TSP plus funds allocated under plans of states
TSP should identify all resources, allocate them
effectively,monitor and evaluate them and involve
community in the design.
Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation
TRIFED works as a market developer and service provider to
state level tribal cooperative societies that procure tribal
minor forest produce in bulk. TRIBES India is the shop of
TRIFED that sells the products marketed by TRIFED.
Forest Rights Act or Scheduled tribes and other forest
dwellers Act recognizes rights of forest dwellers or ST's
for collecting minor forest produce, protect water bodies,
have rituals and customs and in situ rehabilitation.
Schemes for Women
Rajiv Gandhi scheme for empowerment of adolescent girls is
for all round development of girls. It has nutrition
component that involves providing 600 calories for 300 days
a year to adolescent girls and young girls. Non nutrition
component is for health and sex education, health checkups,
accessing public services, vocational training and Iron
folic acid supplementation
Formation of self help groups of vulnerable and at risk
women in the focus areas i.e. mid gangetic plains. The women
shall be given improved livelihood opportunities. NABARD is
the lead agency for implementation.
Provide the destitude and vulnerable women who dont have
options like family, education or wealth to support them.
Such women are identified and their integrated and holistic
development is done. Implementation agencies are Urban local
bodies, Dept of Welfare/ Women and Child development
Comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking of
humans from minors to cross border victims.
It is a technique of keeping the gender perspective in mind
before policy formulation and considering gender issues in
implementation and review. Gender budgeting cells have been
setup in ministries by mandate of Ministry of Finance since
2005. Ministry of Women and Child welfare is the nodal
ministry for policy coordination.
Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao
To improve the child sex ratio and sensitize the society
against problems of women and girls, this scheme was
launched. The initial corpus of Rs. 100 crore is sanctioned
Activate school management committees for ensuring
universal enrollment of girls
Balika manch in schools
toilets for girls
construction of hostels
re-enrollment of girls who have dropped out.
Stree Shakti Puraskar
Constituted for women who have achieved distinction in
field of social work. 6 national awards were constituted
each with cash prize of Rs. 3 lakh and citation each award
named after distinguished women viz. Rani Jijabai,
Ahilyabai holkar, Rudramma devi, Kannagi, Laxmibai, Rani
Central Adoption Resource Authority
Autonomous body under Ministry of Women and Child
development to handle adoption of Indian children. CARINGS ,
is an IT application for transparent conduction of the
procedure of adoption.
Solved Question Papers
Q.With reference to the use of nanotechnology in health sector, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology
2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2015)
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
Ans . C
Nanosystems have significantly different biological properties from large-sized systems (e.g. implants or microparticles) that could be used effectively to overcome problems in drug and gene therapy. In drug therapy, we face the problems of inefficacy or nonspecific effects; hence, nanosystems are being developed for targeted drug therapy.
In gene therapy using non-viral systems, the main issues are relatively transient gene expression and lower efficiency than viral vectors.
Research efforts have focused on understanding the barriers in gene delivery so that non-viral systems can be developed that are as effective as viral systems in gene transfection.
Q.In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at South Pole, which was recently in the news :
1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter
3. It is buried deep in the ice.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (UPSC CSAT 2015)
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3 only
Ans . D
IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless subatomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars.
The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter and could reveal the physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature. In addition, exploring the background of neutrinos produced in the atmosphere, IceCube studies the neutrinos themselves; their energies far exceed those produced by accelerator beams. IceCube is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometer of ice.
It is buried beneath the surface, extending to a depth of about 2,500 meters. Burying it deep in ice is important to enhance the precision of the detector.
Q.With reference to ‘Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a contactless communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio fields
2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other
3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2015)
1 and 2 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . C
Near field communication, abbreviated NFC, is a form of contactless communication based on electromagnetic radio fields between devices like smartphones or tablets. Contactless communication allows a user to wave the smartphone over a NFC compatible device to send information without needing to touch the devices together or go through multiple steps setting up a connection.
Bluetooth can connect to devices up to 32 feet away, yet near field communication can connect to devices at a maximum distance of 4 centimeters on average.
Both businesses and individuals benefit from near field communication technology. By integrating credit cards, subway tickets, and paper coupons all into one device, a customer can board a train, pay for groceries, redeem coupons or store loyalty points, and even exchange contact information all with the wave of a smartphone.
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