1. A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a Declarative or Assertive sentence. E.g: "Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall."

  2. A sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative sentence. E.g: "Where do you live?"

  3. A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an Imperative sentence. E.g: "Be quiet. " OR "Have mercy upon us."

  4. A sentence that expresses strong feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence. E.g: "How cold the night is!" OR "What a shame! "

  1. Sentences have two parts: Subject and Predicate

  2. In Subject: We name some person or thing

  3. In Predicate: We say something about that person or thing

  4. The Subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it is put after the Predicate; E.g: "Here comes the bus." OR "Sweet are the uses of adversity."

  5. In above sentence the subject is "bus" and predicate is "comes".

  6. In Imperative sentences the Subject is left out; E.g: "Sit down. [Here the Subject You is understood]." OR "Thank him. [Here too the Subject You is understood.] "

Sentence Subject Predicate
The cackling of geese saved Rome. Rome cackling of geese
The boy stood on the burning deck. the boy stood on the burning deck
Tubal Cain was a man of might. Tubal Cain a man of might
The beautiful rainbow soon faded away. beautiful rainbow soon faded away
The dewdrops glitter in the sunshine. The dewdrops glitter in the sunshine.

  1. A group of words, which makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a Phrase. E.g: “in a corner”. It makes sense, but not complete sense.

  2. Phrases in sentences are given in italics:

    1. The sun rises in the east.

    2. Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall.

  1. The group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate. Such a group of words which forms part of a sentence, and contains a Subject and a Predicate, is called a Clause.

  2. Clauses in sentences are given in italics:

    1. People who pay their debts are trusted.

    2. We cannot start while it is raining.

Type Description Example
Noun. a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing Akbar was a great King
An Adjective a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun Akbar was a great King.
Pronoun a word used instead of a noun John is absent, because he is ill.
Verb a word used to express an action or state The girl wrote a letter to her cousin.
An Adverb a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb He worked the sum quickly.
Preposition a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else; ‘the man on the platform’ OR ‘she arrived after dinner’, ‘what did you do it for ?’.
Conjunction a word used to join words or sentences; Rama and Hari are cousins.
Interjection a word which expresses some sudden feel ing "Hurrah! We have won the game" OR "Alas! She is dead."


  1. A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing. E.g: "Asoka was a wise king."

  2. The noun Asoka refers to a particular king, but the noun king might be applied to any other king as well as to Asoka. We call "Asoka" a Proper Noun, and "king" a Common Noun.

  3. A Common Noun is a name given in common to every person or thing of the same class or kind. A Proper Noun is the name of some particular person or place. Proper Nouns are always written with a capital letter at the beginning.

  4. Proper Nouns are sometimes used as Common Nouns. E.g: "Kalidas is often called the Shakespeare of India."

Collective Noun

  1. Collective Noun is the name of a number (or collection) of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole. E.g: "Crowd, mob, team, flock, herd, army, fleet, jury, family, nation, parliament, committee."

  2. A fleet = a collection of ships or vessels.

  3. An army = a collection of soldiers.

  4. A crowd = a collection of people.

Abstract Noun

  1. Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs

  2. Quality - Goodness, kindness, whiteness, darkness, hardness, brightness, honesty, wisdom, bravery

  3. Action - Laughter, theft, movement, judgment, hatred.

  4. State - Childhood, boyhood, youth, slavery, sleep, sickness, death, poverty.

  5. The names of the Arts and Science (e.g., grammar, music, chemistry, etc.) are also Abstract Nouns.

  6. Abstract Nouns are formed:

    1. From Adjectives; Kindness from kind; honesty from honest. [Most abstract nouns are formed thus.]

    2. From Verbs: Obedience from obey; growth from grow.

    3. From Common Nouns; Childhood from child; slavery from slave.

    4. Countable nouns (or countables) are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count, e.g., book, pen, apple, boy, sister, doctor, horse.

    5. Uncountable nouns (or uncountables) are the names of things which we cannot count, e.g., milk, oil, sugar, gold, honesty. They mainly denote substances and abstract things.

    6. Countable nouns have plural forms while uncountable nouns do not. For example, we say “books” but we cannot say “milks”.

Ways of Forming the Feminine of Nouns

  1. By adding a syllable (-ess, -ine, -trix, -a, etc)

  2. OR By adding -ess is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending

  3. OR The suffix -ess is the commonest suffix used to form feminine nouns, from the masculine, and is the only one which we now use in forming a new feminine noun.

  4. OR By using an entirely different word

Masculine -- Feminine Masculine -- Feminine
Bachelor maid, spinster
Buck doe
Bullock heifer
Colt filly
Drone bee
Earl countess
Gander goose
Gentleman lady
Hart roe
Horse mare
Monk (or friar) nun
Nephew niece
Ram ewe
Wizard witch
Stag hind
Author -- authoress Baron -- baroness
Heir -- heiress Manager -- manageress
Priest -- priestess Shepherd -- shepherdess
Host -- hostess Founder -- foundress
Duke -- duchess Emperor -- empress
Traitor -- traitress Waiter -- waitress
Hero -- heroine Czar -- czarina
Sultan -- sultana Fox -- vixen
peacock -- peahen Landlord -- landlady

  1. The Plural of nouns is generally formed by adding -s to the singular

  2. But Nouns ending in -s, -sh, -ch (soft), or -x form the plural by adding -es to the

  3. Most Nouns ending in -o also form the plural by adding -es to the singular

  4. A few nouns ending in -o merely add -s;

  5. Nouns ending in -y, preceded by a consonant, form their plural by changing -y into -i and adding -es

  6. The following nouns ending in -f or -fe form their plural by changing -for -fe into v and adding -es

  7. The nouns dwarf, hoof, scarf and wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural.

  8. Other words ending in -for -fe add -s

  9. A few nouns form their plural by changing the inside vowel of the singular

  10. There are a few nouns that form their plural by adding -en to the singular; as, ox, oxen; child, children.

  11. Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike;

  12. Some nouns are used only in the plural.

  13. As a Common Noun 'people' means a 'nation' and is used in both singular and plural; E.g: "The Japanese are a hard-working people." AND "There are many different peoples in Europe."

  14. Certain Collective Nouns, though singular in form, are always used as plurals. E.g: Poultry, cattle, vermin, people, gentry.

    1. These poultry are mine.

    2. Whose are these cattle?

    3. Vermin destroy our property and carry disease

    4. Who are those people (= persons)?

  15. ‘Means’ is used either as singular or plural. But when it has the meaning of ‘wealth’ it is always plural; as in

    1. He succeeded by this means (or, by these means) in passing the examination.

    2. His means are small, but he has incurred no debt.

Singular - plural Singular - Plural
Commander-in-chief -- commanders-in-chief Coat-of-mail -- coats-of-mail
Son-in-Law -- sons-in-law Mathematics is his favourite study
Bullock heifer
No news is good news. India won by an innings and three runs.
Measles is infectious. Billiards is my favourite game.
The plural of fish is fish or fishes man - men;
woman - women; foot - feet;
tooth - teeth; goose - geese
mouse - mice louse - lice
Dwarf - dwarfs / dwarves hoof - hoofs / hooves
scarf - scarfs / scarves wharf - wharfs / wharves
thief, thieves wife, wives
wolf, wolves life, lives
calf, calves leaf, leaves
loaf, loaves knife, knives
shelf, shelves half, halves
elf, elves sheaf, sheaves.
self, selves Step-daughter -- step-daughters
Maid-servant -- maid-servants (but man-servant, plural men-servants Daughter-in-law -- daughters-in-law
Step-son -- step-sons Man-of-war -- men-of-war
Looker-on -- lookers-on Passer-by -- passers-by
formula, formulae/formulas index, indices
memorandum, memoranda radius, radii
terminus, termini / terminuses Axis, axes
parenthesis, parentheses crisis, crises
hypothesis, hypotheses basis, bases
phenomenon, phenomena; analysis, analyses
criterion, criteria