1. Past tense: A Verb that refers to past time is said to be in the Past Tense

    1. I loved. (Simple Past)

    2. I was loving. (Past Continuous)

    3. 1 had loved. (Past Perfect)

    4. I had been loving. (Past Perfect Continuous)

  2. Present tense: A Verb that refers to present time is said to be in the Present Tense

    1. I love. (Simple Present)

    2. I am loving. (Present Continuous)

    3. I have loved. (Present Perfect)

    4. I have been loving. (Present Perfect Continuous)

  3. Future tense: A Verb that refers to future time is said to be in the Future Tense

    1. I shall/will love. (Simple Future)

    2. I shall/will be loving. (Future Continuous)

    3. I shall/will have loved. (Future Perfect)

    4. I shall/will have been loving. (Future Perfect Continuous)

Question Answer
The river flows under the bridge. Simple present
I shall answer the letter to-night. simple future
I knew he was there, for I had seen him come. simple past, had seen - past perfect
It has been raining all night. has been raining - Present Perfect Continuous
I hear he has passed all right. hear - simple present, has passed - present perfect
I had finished when he came. had finished - past perfect, came - simple past
He takes but little pride in his work. takes - simple present
I have been living here for months. have been living - present perfect continuous
Be good, sweet maid. be - simple present
By this time to-morrow I shall have reached my home. shall have reached - future perfect
It is time we left. is - simple present, left - simple past
He told me that he had finished told - simple past, had finished - past perfect
God forgive you ! forgive - simple present
He is waiting for you in the compound. is waiting - present continuous
Piper, pipe that song again. pipe - simple present
I am hoping to get a holiday soon. am hoping - present continuous

Question Answer
The earth --- round the sun. (move, moves, moved) moves
My friends --- the Prime Minister yesterday, (see, have seen, saw) saw
I --- him only one letter up to now. (sent, have sent, send) have sent
She --- worried about something, (looks, looking, is looking) looks / is looking
It started to rain while we --- tennis, (are playing, were playing, had played). were playing
He --- fast when the accident happened, (is driving, was driving, drove) was driving
He --- asleep while he was driving, (falls, fell, has fallen) fell
I'm sure I --- him at the party last night, (saw, have seen, had seen). saw
He --- a mill in this town, (have, has, is having) has
He --- here for the last five years, (worked, is working, has been working). has been working
He thanked me for what I ---. (have done, had done, have been doing) had done
I --- a strange noise, (hear, am hearing, have been hearing) hear
I --- him for a long time, (know, have known, am knowing) ' have known
We ---,English for five years, (study, am studying, have been studying) have been studying
Don't disturb me. I --- my homework, (do, did, am doing) am doing

Question Answer
The Headmaster --- to speak to you. (wants, is wanting, was wanting) wants
I --- a new bicycle last week, (bought, have bought, had bought) bought
Here are your shoes ; I --- them, (just clean, just cleaned, have just cleaned) have just cleaned
It --- since early morning, (rained, is raining, has been raining) has been raining
I --- a lot of work today, (did, have done, had done) have done / did
I --- something burning, (smell, am smelling, have been smelling) smell
Look ! The sun --- over the hills, (rises, is rise, is rising) is rising
She --- unconscious since four o'clock, (is, was, has been) has been
He used to visit us every week, but he --- now. (rarely comes, is rarely coming, has rarely come) rarely comes
We --- for his call since 4.20. (are waiting, have been waiting, were waiting) have been waiting

Question Answer
The plane --- at 3.30. (arrives, will arrive) ARRIVES
I will phone you when he --- back, (comes, will come) COMES
When I get home, my dog --- at the gate waiting for me. (sits, will be sitting) will be sitting
I --- the Joshis this evening, (visit, am visiting) am visiting
Look at those black clouds. It ---, (will rain, is going to rain) is going to rain
The train --- before we reach the station, (arrives, will have arrived) will have arrived
Perhaps we --- Mahabaleshwar next month, (visit, will visit) will visit
Unless we --- now we can't be on time, (start, will start) start
I --- into town later on. Do you want a lift? (drive, will be driving) will be driving
The next term --- on 16th November, (begins, is beginning) begins
Oh dear! I --- (will sneeze, am going to sneeze) am going to sneeze
By 2005, computers --- many of the jobs that people do today, (will be taking over, will have taken over) will have taken over
I'm sure she --- the exam, (passes, will pass) will pass
I --- home next Sunday, (go, am going) am going
I --- you one of these days, I expect, (see, will be seeing) will be seeing

  • To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurp—all of these are infinitives. An infinitive will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this:

    • To + Verb = Infinitive

  • Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, es, ed, or ing to the end.

  • Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.

  • Noun: To sleep functions as a noun because it is the subject of the sentence.

    • To sleep is the only thing Eli wants after his double shift waiting tables at the neighborhood cafĂ©.

  • Adjective: To read functions as an adjective because it modifies book.

    • Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read in case conversation lags or she has a long wait.

  • Adverb: To throw functions as an adverb because it explains why Richard braved the inclement weather.

    • Richard braved the icy rain to throw the smelly squid eyeball stew into the apartment dumpster.

Question Answer
He did not have even a rupee with him. He could not buy a loaf of bread. He did not have even a rupee with him to buy a loaf of bread.
Every cricket team has a captain. He directs the other players. Every cricket team has a captain to direct the other players.
You must part with your purse. On this condition only you can save your life. You must part with your purse to save your life.
He went to Amritsar. He wanted to visit the Golden Temple. He went to Amritsar to visit the Golden Temple.
The robber took out a knife. He intended to frighten the old man. The robber took out a knife to frighten the old man.
I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it. I am not afraid to speak the truth.
The insolvent's property was sold by the official Assignee. The insolvent's creditors had to be paid. The insolvent's property was sold by the official Assignee to pay his creditors
He wants to earn his livelihood. He works hard for that reason. He works hard to earn his livelihood.
The strikers held a meeting. They wished to discuss the terms of the employers. The strikers held a meeting to discuss the terms of the employers.
He has five children. He must provide for them. He has five children to provide for.
The old man has now little energy left. He cannot take his morning constitutional exercises. The old man has now little energy left to take his morning constitutional exercises.
The Rajah allowed no cows to be slaughtered in his territory. It was his custom It was the Rajah's custom to allow no cows to be slaughtered in his territory.
He formed a resolution. It was to the effect that he would not speculate any more He formed a resolution not to speculate any more
Everyone should do his duty. India expects this of every man. India expects every man to do his duty.
She visits the poor. She is anxious to relieve them of their sufferings. She visits the poor to relieve them of their sufferings.

  • Participles come in two varieties: past and present. They are two of the five forms or principal parts that every verb has

  • Each present participle ends in 'ing' always.

  • The perfect participle is a compound verb form consisting of an auxiliary (in the -ing form) and a verb. For example: Having studied for the exam, Mike went to play football

Verb Past Participle Present Participle
giggle giggled giggling
jump jumped jumping
swim swum swimming
  • A verb can have as many as four parts. When you form multipart verbs, you use a combination of auxiliary verbs and participles.

    • With a broom, Mrs. Olsen was beating our alligator over the head in an attempt to retrieve her poodle.

    • Was = auxiliary verb; beating = present participle.

  • Past and present participles often function as adjectives that describe nouns

    • The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib.

    • crying, crouching - present participles

  • Present participles can function as nouns Whenever a present participle functions as a noun, you call it a gerund.

    • Sneezing exhausts Steve, who requires eight tissues and twenty-seven Gesundheits before he is done.

    • Sneezing = Present participle

Question Answer
Generally speaking, we receive what we deserve. speaking - present participle
Having gained truth, keep truth. Having gained - perfect participle
I saw the storm approaching. approaching - present participle
Hearing a noise, I turned round. Hearing - present participle
Considering the facts, he received scant justice. considering - present participle
The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field. beaten - past participle
Being dissatisfied, he resigned his position. Being dissatisfied - present participle
The rain came pouring down in torrents. pouring - present participle
Having elected him President, the people gave him their loyal support. Having elected - perfect participle
The traveller, being weary, sat by the wood side to rest. being - present participle
The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use. laid - past participle
Being occupied with important matters, he had no leisure to see us. Being occupied - present participle
The children coming home from school look in at the open door. coming - present participle
Michael, bereft of his son Luke, died of a broken heart. bereft - past participle
Books read in childhood seem like old friends. read - past participle