Past tense: A Verb that refers to past time is said to be in the Past Tense
I loved. (Simple Past)
I was loving. (Past Continuous)
1 had loved. (Past Perfect)
I had been loving. (Past Perfect Continuous)
Present tense: A Verb that refers to present time is said to be in the Present Tense
I love. (Simple Present)
I am loving. (Present Continuous)
I have loved. (Present Perfect)
I have been loving. (Present Perfect Continuous)
Future tense: A Verb that refers to future time is said to be in the Future Tense
I shall/will love. (Simple Future)
I shall/will be loving. (Future Continuous)
I shall/will have loved. (Future Perfect)
I shall/will have been loving. (Future Perfect Continuous)
|The river flows under the bridge.||Simple present|
|I shall answer the letter to-night.||simple future|
|I knew he was there, for I had seen him come.||simple past, had seen - past perfect|
|It has been raining all night.||has been raining - Present Perfect Continuous|
|I hear he has passed all right.||hear - simple present, has passed - present perfect|
|I had finished when he came.||had finished - past perfect, came - simple past|
|He takes but little pride in his work.||takes - simple present|
|I have been living here for months.||have been living - present perfect continuous|
|Be good, sweet maid.||be - simple present|
|By this time to-morrow I shall have reached my home.||shall have reached - future perfect|
|It is time we left.||is - simple present, left - simple past|
|He told me that he had finished||told - simple past, had finished - past perfect|
|God forgive you !||forgive - simple present|
|He is waiting for you in the compound.||is waiting - present continuous|
|Piper, pipe that song again.||pipe - simple present|
|I am hoping to get a holiday soon.||am hoping - present continuous|
|The earth --- round the sun. (move, moves, moved)||moves|
|My friends --- the Prime Minister yesterday, (see, have seen, saw)||saw|
|I --- him only one letter up to now. (sent, have sent, send)||have sent|
|She --- worried about something, (looks, looking, is looking)||looks / is looking|
|It started to rain while we --- tennis, (are playing, were playing, had played).||were playing|
|He --- fast when the accident happened, (is driving, was driving, drove)||was driving|
|He --- asleep while he was driving, (falls, fell, has fallen)||fell|
|I'm sure I --- him at the party last night, (saw, have seen, had seen).||saw|
|He --- a mill in this town, (have, has, is having)||has|
|He --- here for the last five years, (worked, is working, has been working).||has been working|
|He thanked me for what I ---. (have done, had done, have been doing)||had done|
|I --- a strange noise, (hear, am hearing, have been hearing)||hear|
|I --- him for a long time, (know, have known, am knowing) '||have known|
|We ---,English for five years, (study, am studying, have been studying)||have been studying|
|Don't disturb me. I --- my homework, (do, did, am doing)||am doing|
|The Headmaster --- to speak to you. (wants, is wanting, was wanting)||wants|
|I --- a new bicycle last week, (bought, have bought, had bought)||bought|
|Here are your shoes ; I --- them, (just clean, just cleaned, have just cleaned)||have just cleaned|
|It --- since early morning, (rained, is raining, has been raining)||has been raining|
|I --- a lot of work today, (did, have done, had done)||have done / did|
|I --- something burning, (smell, am smelling, have been smelling)||smell|
|Look ! The sun --- over the hills, (rises, is rise, is rising)||is rising|
|She --- unconscious since four o'clock, (is, was, has been)||has been|
|He used to visit us every week, but he --- now. (rarely comes, is rarely coming, has rarely come)||rarely comes|
|We --- for his call since 4.20. (are waiting, have been waiting, were waiting)||have been waiting|
|The plane --- at 3.30. (arrives, will arrive)||ARRIVES|
|I will phone you when he --- back, (comes, will come)||COMES|
|When I get home, my dog --- at the gate waiting for me. (sits, will be sitting)||will be sitting|
|I --- the Joshis this evening, (visit, am visiting)||am visiting|
|Look at those black clouds. It ---, (will rain, is going to rain)||is going to rain|
|The train --- before we reach the station, (arrives, will have arrived)||will have arrived|
|Perhaps we --- Mahabaleshwar next month, (visit, will visit)||will visit|
|Unless we --- now we can't be on time, (start, will start)||start|
|I --- into town later on. Do you want a lift? (drive, will be driving)||will be driving|
|The next term --- on 16th November, (begins, is beginning)||begins|
|Oh dear! I --- (will sneeze, am going to sneeze)||am going to sneeze|
|By 2005, computers --- many of the jobs that people do today, (will be taking over, will have taken over)||will have taken over|
|I'm sure she --- the exam, (passes, will pass)||will pass|
|I --- home next Sunday, (go, am going)||am going|
|I --- you one of these days, I expect, (see, will be seeing)||will be seeing|
To sneeze, to smash, to cry, to shriek, to jump, to dunk, to read, to eat, to slurp—all of these are infinitives. An infinitive will almost always begin with to followed by the simple form of the verb, like this:
To + Verb = Infinitive
Because an infinitive is not a verb, you cannot add s, es, ed, or ing to the end.
Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Noun: To sleep functions as a noun because it is the subject of the sentence.
To sleep is the only thing Eli wants after his double shift waiting tables at the neighborhood café.
Adjective: To read functions as an adjective because it modifies book.
Wherever Melissa goes, she always brings a book to read in case conversation lags or she has a long wait.
Adverb: To throw functions as an adverb because it explains why Richard braved the inclement weather.
Richard braved the icy rain to throw the smelly squid eyeball stew into the apartment dumpster.
|He did not have even a rupee with him. He could not buy a loaf of bread.||He did not have even a rupee with him to buy a loaf of bread.|
|Every cricket team has a captain. He directs the other players.||Every cricket team has a captain to direct the other players.|
|You must part with your purse. On this condition only you can save your life.||You must part with your purse to save your life.|
|He went to Amritsar. He wanted to visit the Golden Temple.||He went to Amritsar to visit the Golden Temple.|
|The robber took out a knife. He intended to frighten the old man.||The robber took out a knife to frighten the old man.|
|I speak the truth. I am not afraid of it.||I am not afraid to speak the truth.|
|The insolvent's property was sold by the official Assignee. The insolvent's creditors had to be paid.||The insolvent's property was sold by the official Assignee to pay his creditors|
|He wants to earn his livelihood. He works hard for that reason.||He works hard to earn his livelihood.|
|The strikers held a meeting. They wished to discuss the terms of the employers.||The strikers held a meeting to discuss the terms of the employers.|
|He has five children. He must provide for them.||He has five children to provide for.|
|The old man has now little energy left. He cannot take his morning constitutional exercises.||The old man has now little energy left to take his morning constitutional exercises.|
|The Rajah allowed no cows to be slaughtered in his territory. It was his custom||It was the Rajah's custom to allow no cows to be slaughtered in his territory.|
|He formed a resolution. It was to the effect that he would not speculate any more||He formed a resolution not to speculate any more|
|Everyone should do his duty. India expects this of every man.||India expects every man to do his duty.|
|She visits the poor. She is anxious to relieve them of their sufferings.||She visits the poor to relieve them of their sufferings.|
Participles come in two varieties: past and present. They are two of the five forms or principal parts that every verb has
Each present participle ends in 'ing' always.
The perfect participle is a compound verb form consisting of an auxiliary (in the -ing form) and a verb. For example: Having studied for the exam, Mike went to play football
|Verb||Past Participle||Present Participle|
A verb can have as many as four parts. When you form multipart verbs, you use a combination of auxiliary verbs and participles.
With a broom, Mrs. Olsen was beating our alligator over the head in an attempt to retrieve her poodle.
Was = auxiliary verb; beating = present participle.
Past and present participles often function as adjectives that describe nouns
The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib.
crying, crouching - present participles
Present participles can function as nouns Whenever a present participle functions as a noun, you call it a gerund.
Sneezing exhausts Steve, who requires eight tissues and twenty-seven Gesundheits before he is done.
Sneezing = Present participle
|Generally speaking, we receive what we deserve.||speaking - present participle|
|Having gained truth, keep truth.||Having gained - perfect participle|
|I saw the storm approaching.||approaching - present participle|
|Hearing a noise, I turned round.||Hearing - present participle|
|Considering the facts, he received scant justice.||considering - present participle|
|The enemy, beaten at every point, fled from the field.||beaten - past participle|
|Being dissatisfied, he resigned his position.||Being dissatisfied - present participle|
|The rain came pouring down in torrents.||pouring - present participle|
|Having elected him President, the people gave him their loyal support.||Having elected - perfect participle|
|The traveller, being weary, sat by the wood side to rest.||being - present participle|
|The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use.||laid - past participle|
|Being occupied with important matters, he had no leisure to see us.||Being occupied - present participle|
|The children coming home from school look in at the open door.||coming - present participle|
|Michael, bereft of his son Luke, died of a broken heart.||bereft - past participle|
|Books read in childhood seem like old friends.||read - past participle|