Chapter 6: AGRICULTURE
Agriculture is the main source of
livelihood for 55% of the population. The food grain
production of 2014-15 is at 252 million tones slightly
less than previous year due to the drought. The
schemes launched by the Dept. of Agriculture and
Cooperation & Farmers Welfare are:
Ministry of Agriculture
Yojana [ Umbrella Scheme]:
food security mission [2007-8] launched to
increase production of rice, wheat, pulses by 10, 8, 2
million tons resp. The mission is being continued into the
12th plan with a target of 10, 8, 4 for rice,
wheat, pulses and 3 million tons increase in coarse
cereals. Currently the program is being implemented with a
share ratio of 50:50 between center and states in 623
districts of 28 states.
food security mission – commercial crops:
To enhance the productivity of cotton, jute and sugarcane.
Thrust is on transfer of technology and share ratio is
for integrated development of horticulture:
emphasis is on improving productivity, reduce post harvest
losses, and improve quality of seeds and planting
material. The current production of horticulture products
is at 283 million tons [2014-15]
mission on oilseeds and oil palm: target is to
increase production of vegetable oils from oil seeds, oil
palm to 9.5 million tons by end of 12th plan.
Strategy is increase seed replacement ratio, increase
quality planting material, irrigation coverage, inter
cropping with others and use of fallow and wastelands for
mission for sustainable agriculture: emphasis
is to make agriculture more remunerative, sustainable,
climate resilient and remunerative.
Soil health card
be distributed to farmer’s at interval of three years so
that they can test their fields and appropriately put
fertilizers to their farms. 12 indicators shall be tested
in every soil sample.
promotion scheme. Cluster of farmers shall be formed and
motivated to do organic farming. 10000 clusters covering 5
lac acres are targeted. Certification and end to end
marketing of produce shall be done.
Fig 1: Organic farming
Mass media support
to agriculture extension and focused publicity campaign:
and agro business centers: provides service and support to
farmers for setting up of self employment ventures.
through agriculture fairs.
plan in agriculture: timely providing information to
farmers using I.C.T
centers: provide toll free information to farmers
to access all information on agricultural activities using
a graphical interface
- kisan portal: to send S.M.S, I.V.R.S and U.S.S.D service
to farmers by Agro - Scientists.
Kisan: fully dedicated channel for farmers.
Agro - tech infra fund: to be used to promote a national
market by creating an e-platform to be deployed on all
state and UT's wholesale markets.
fund: to purchase Agro - horticulture products and reduce
price fluctuations and protect farmers and consumers.
PM krishi sinchai
Providing access to water for
every farm by ensuring end to end irrigation supply chain
by building distributing networks, farm gate applications.
Micro irrigation and its benefits
Micro irrigation has a coverage potential of 69 million hectares and currently only 13% area of that is being covered. The micro irrigation systems provide a water savings of up to 40% over conventional flood irrigation systems and lead to crop productivity increase. The latter is due to water application directly at the root zone. The piped system of transporting water from dams to fields can save water loss by 70% and make the entire system water efficient by 90%.
The Marathwada region of Maharashtra which grows sugarcane consumes 2000 liters of water for a kilogram of sugar and so bringing a hectare of sugarcane under micro irrigation can save enough water to bring 5 hectares of cotton under cultivation. Installation of micro irrigation systems can cost Rs. 75000 per hectare but the price can lead to huge savings too.
PM Krishi Sinchayi Yojana
Fig 2: PMKSY
Provide financial support and
stabilize farm income during adverse conditions when crops
fail due to pests, disease, weather or natural calamities.
of agriculture research [I.C.A.R]: Under the
Dept. Of Agriculture Research, Ministry of Agriculture. It
has one of the world’s largest network of institutes and
is mandated with coordinating, managing R&D in
schemes launched by it are farmer FIRST
[farmer, innovation, research, science and technology],
student READY [rural entrepreneurship
and awareness development Yojana], and A.R.Y.A
[attracting and retaining youth in agriculture].
Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries:
animal husbandry, dairying, fisheries: is
another department under ministry of agriculture. It
conducts livestock census every five years [1st
in 1919]. India is the world’s leading producer of milk
and the per capita availability is higher than the world.
The department looks after promotion of dairy
activities in non operation flood areas while the
national dairy development board looks after operation
flood areas. Schemes launched by it are:
for bovine breeding and dairy development: N.P.B.B & D.D
Focused on increasing artificial insemination by its
network of M.A.I.T.R.I [Multipurpose Artificial
Insemination Technician in Rural India] and N.P.D.D
focused on creating the infrastructure for procurement,
processing, marketing of milk and milk products.
a highly growing sector where India ranks second in world
with 5.6% of global fish production. It is also second
after china in aquaculture. The total output of fish
is 10 million tons with 6.5 from inland and rest from
marine. India has about 2200 species of fish i.e.
11% of global fish species. 65% of Indian fishes live in
the sea, 3.3% in cold freshwater, 25% in warm freshwater
and rest in estuaries. Ongoing schemes were brought under
Blue Revolution – an umbrella referring to integrated and holistic
development of fisheries and aquaculture.
Q.Consider the following statements :
The nation-wide ‘Soil Health Card Scheme’ aims at
1. expanding the cultivable area under irrigation.
2. enabling the banks to assess the quantum of loans to be granted to farmers on the basis of soil quality.
3. checking the overuse of fertilizers in farmlands.
Which of the above statements is/are correct? (UPSC CSAT 2017)
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . B
A soil health card provides information about 12 soil parameters, so farmer can use appropriate fertilizers.
Q. What is/are the advantage/advantages of implementing the ‘National Agriculture Market’ (NAM) scheme?
1. It is a pan-India electronic trading portal for agricultural commodities.
2. It provides the farmers access to nationwide market, with prices commensurate with the quality of their produce.
Select the correct answer using the code given below :(UPSC CSAT 2017)
Both 1 and 2
Neither 1 nor 2
Ans . C
Q. Which of the following practices can help in water conservation in agriculture?
1. Reduced or zero tillage of the land
2. Applying gypsum before irrigating the field
3. Allowing crop residue to remain in the field
Select the correct answer using the code given below : (UPSC CSAT 2017)
1 and 2 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . D
Crop residues or other organic matter left in or added to the field improve water penetration and moisture retention
Gypsum application can solve the water percolation process.
zero tillage faming helps in moisture conservation.
Q.What is the application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Technology? (UPSC CSAT 2017)
Production of biolarvicides
Manufacture of biodegradable plastics
Reproductive cloning of animals
Production of organisms free of disease
Ans . C
SCNT technology was used for cloning the sheep “Dolly
Q.With reference to agriculture in India, how can the technique of ‘genome sequencing’, often seen in the news, be used in the immediate future?
1. Genome sequencing can be used to identify genetic markers for disease resistance and drought tolerance in various crop plants.
2. This technique helps in reducing the time required to develop new varieties of crop plants.
3. It can be used to decipher the host-pathogen relationships in crops.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2017)
2 and 3 only
1 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . D
Benefits of human genome sequencing that – “It is the sequence of bases in DNA that determines the genetic information of a given organism. So, learning about the DNA sequences can lead to an understanding of their natural capabilities that can be applied toward solving challenges in health care, agriculture, energy production, environmental remediation.”
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