Creation of District council with representation or rural and urban bodies, as the true third
tier of government
Autonomy to Panchayats in respect to personnel
Establishing Ombudsman at the local levels
Merging DRDA with Zila Parishad
The DPC in its present form will be redundant, once a District Council comes into existence
as envisaged by the Commission.
The role of the District Collector/DM also needs to be reviewed in the context of the District
Council and the District Government.
The Commission is of the considered view that a golden mean between these two positions
is desirable and the District government must be empowered while fully utilising the
institutional strength of the District Collector.
three tiers of administration in urban local governments, except in the case of Town Panchayats
Municipal Council/Corporation (by whatever name it is called), Ward Committees; and
Area Committees or Sabhas.
Following the lead taken by Kerala, Karnataka and West Bengal, the DRDAs in other States
also should be merged with the respective District Panchayats (Zila Parishad)
The Union and State Governments should normally not set up special committees outside the
The Constitution should be amended to make Lokayukta mandatory and stipulate the general
principles about its structure, power and functions.
A local bodies Ombudsman should be constituted for a group of districts.
The local bodies Ombudsman should be empowered to investigate cases of corruption or maladministration
by the functionaries.
The State Vigilance Commissions/Lokayuktas may be empowered to supervise prosecution of
corruption related cases.
The investigative agencies should acquire multi-disciplinary skills and should be thoroughly conversant
with the working of various offices/departments.
The anti-corruption agencies should conduct systematic surveys of departments
The East India Company treated the District as the focal point of its revenue administration
within British India.
In 1786 the districts were reorganised into regular fiscal units each under a Collector.
n 1787, leaving aside a few districts, the Collectors were vested with magisterial powers; they
could try criminal cases within certain limits.
The Cornwallis Code of 1793 divested the Collector of his major judicial functions, but he still
remained the most powerful functionary of the Company on Indian soil.
He was responsible for collecting various types of taxes and revenue;
he was the government treasurer in-charge of local funds and
he was the Magistrate, responsible for the maintenance of law and order, superintendence
of the police and the management of jails and
in-charge of relief in times of epidemics and disasters for the territories under his charge.
Towards the beginning of the 19th century, Company needed to create an intermediate level of
functionaries who could effectively supervise and control functioning of 4-5 districts.
Thus, the institution of the Divisional Commissioner was born in 1829.
Gradually, the Division became an important hub of the British Administration around which
almost all major departments of the government positioned their senior level officers, intermediate
in rank between the official at the district level and the Agency Head located at the State
The range DIG of Police, Conservator of Forests and the Superintending Engineer of the
PWD were among the first positions which were sanctioned at the divisional leve
In the post 73rd/74th Constitutional Amendment scenario, the situation is different.
The district has now been recognized by the Constitution as the third tier of government with
local institutions, both rural and urban, vested with substantial functions and powers
In the transferred domain, the machinery of the State Government including the District Collector
and his offices, have a limited role.
Development functions have to be dealt by a District Council consisting of representatives from
both urban and rural areas.
The District Collector would now be the ex officio Chief Officer of this body and would have
a dual responsibility.
He will be accountable to the District Council in respect of transferred matters, but will report to
the State Government on regulatory/other matters which do not stand delegated to the District
Steps should be taken to ensure that persons of high standing, intellectual ability and
reputation are selected as Chairman/Members of the State Public Service Commissions.
A limit should also be imposed on the strength of its membership.
There is need to evolve national consensus among States on the issues of
i) appointment of Chairman/Members and (ii) limit on the membership of the Commission,
The Public Service Commission should handle only
recruitment of candidates for higher level posts under the State Government (Class I and
Class II positions of various State cadres),
recruitment and promotions to teaching posts in government Colleges and fully funded units
of the Universities.
The role of the State Public Service Commission should be to lay down broad norms and
After Independence, the single greatest accretion to the responsibilities of the district administrator
came through expension of rural development programmes.
the coordinating and synthesizing role of the Collector in the development efforts greater
It is imperative that the devolution of decision making to local levels should face no impediments.
The administrative experience, expertise and credibility of the post of Collector built up
over a period of 200 years has to properly utilized.
Environment for a responsive and citizen friendly district administration in line with the principles
of decentralization and subsidiarity.
The overall administrative structure presently prevailing at the district and sub-district levels in
the country consists of the following three components.
Administration of regulatory functions under the leadership of the Collector and District
Law and order, land revenue / reforms, excise, registration, treasury, civil supplies and social
District / sub-district level offices of the line departments of the State Government and their
agencies, such as PWD, irrigation, health, industries etc.
Local bodies (Panchayati Raj Institutions and Municipal bodies) which, after the 73rd and 74th
amendment of the Constitution
Till the 1960s, when programmes of rural development were at a nascent stage, the Collector's
job seemed to be carefully organized with land reforms, revenue collection, law and order, food
and civil supplies, welfare and relief/rehabilitation being the principal areas of his responsibility.
Under these circumstances, the office of the Collector was a strong and effective institution.
In the years that followed, a large number of new projects/schemes were initiated by various departments
of the Government, with the Collector as the notional head of the District Monitoring
Towards the beginning of the 1980s, the development of rural areas got a further thrust and the
government initiated a large number of Centrally Sponsored/State sector schemes
Though, separate instruments were created for their execution, the Collector, in most of the
cases, was given the overall supervisory charge of the programmes in the districts.
But after the introduction of the Panchayati Raj system in the country (post 1993), most of the
development functions have been taken away from the Collector's domain,
In the post Independence era, when the economy diversified, and the pace of industrialization
and growth of tertiary
activities picked up, other functionaries too gained in importance.
he is considered to be the principal representative of the government at the district level
Prime Minister's Address at the District Magistrate's Conference on May 20, 2005
Become agents of change, of good governance and development administration at the very base
of our democratic structure
The insights you gain during your tenure at the district level helps your career because it gives
you a first hand experience in dealing with the hopes and aspirations, the lives and livelihoods
of our people.
Your role in ensuring good governance at the grassroots, in promoting innovation, in improving
service delivery, in enhancing PPPs and in ensuring outlays become outcomes.
73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments
The role of the Collector has only been transformed into a more powerful one of coordinator,
The solution may lie in enabling people to handle change and improving service delivery. A
Collector therefore can provide a leadership to this task of nation building...
The Collector will thus continue to be responsible for a multiplicity of tasks at the district
level such as improving human capabilities, creating physical infrastructure, improving economic
opportunities for marginalized sections of society and facing challenges posed by disasters.
A new role that is the role of a coordinator, facilitator and a person who is responsible for
inter-sectoral coordination of various activities that characterise the work of our grassroots
Land and Revenue administration, land acquisition, custodian of government properties,
registration, recovery of public demand
The land revenue administration in a State operates at four administrative levels
district, sub-division, tehsil/taluka/block and village.
The Collector/DC is the head of the revenue administration at the district level and is
the custodian of government land and properties under his jurisdiction
At the village level, the States usually, have a designated revenue official called Patwari/
In some States, the Executive Officer of the Gram Panchayat or GP Secretary may
double up as the Patwari to handle revenue functions as well.
The State Revenue Law has created the `Land Revenue' machinery consisting of functionaries
such as the Commissioner, the Collector, Assitant Collector, Tahsildar, Revenue
Inspector, Patwari etc
The system of land records management varies from State to State depending upon
their historical evolution and local traditions.
Executive magistracy and maintenance of Law and Order, Internal Security, Prisons, Remand/
Through powers given to him under Sections 106 to 124 of the Cr.P.C., he and the
magistracy of the district can bind the people to maintain peace, security and good
He also exercises powers for maintenance of public order and tranquility through Sections
129 to 148 of the Cr.P.C.
Deployment and movement of armed forces in the district in times of emergency and
crisis is done under his guidance.
Licensing and regulatory functions with respect to various special laws pertaining to Arms,
Explosives, Cinemas etc.
The Collector is the Chairman of the District Disaster Management Committee (DDMC),
which is responsible for making advance, plans to mitigate the effect of calamities and
for providing both immediate as well as long term assistance to the affected people.
Civil supplies, public distribution and social welfare
The Collector oversees the arrangements for provision of essential commodities to citizens
through the Public Distribution System (PDS)
Excise, Transport, Mining, Labour Laws, Elections and Legal Affairs
The Collector provides substantial contribution to the State budget through excise and
The Collector is the Chief Mining officer of the district and exercises powers to grant
prospecting license and mining lease under provisions of the MM(DR)Act, 1957
For elections, the Collector is the District Election Officer (DEO) and is responsible for
preparation / updation of electoral rolls and
for holding free and fair elections in his jurisdiction.
Under election laws, he is the Returning Officer (RO) for the Parliamentary elections
Census, Protocol, General Administration, Treasury Management / District Accounts Office
The Collector is the overall in-charge of the Treasury in the district and is responsible
for sending detailed accounts of financial transactions taking place in the district to the
office of the Accountant General
Public Relations Department, NIC and other miscellaneous functions assigned by the State
Government, coordination with civil society
He chairs meetings of various Committees of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Veterinary,
Sericulture, Handlooms, Textiles, Irrigation and Industries departments.
Coordination with line departments/other agencies of the State and Union Governments
In the interim period till the local institutions obtain adequate maturity as Chief Officer
of the proposed District Government
The District Collector-cum-Chief Officer would have dual responsibility and would be
fully accountable to the elected District Government on all local matters, and to the
State Government on all regulatory matters not delegated to the District Government.
Realign the functions of the Deputy Commissioners/ District Collector so that he concentrates
on the core functions
Experienced Officers as District Collectors
an IAS officer should be posted as Collector/District Magistrate only on completion of 10-12
years of service.
Tour Inspection Notes and Institutional Memory
The tradition continued till around 1960. There is need to revive it.
Process Re-engineering and use of Information Technology
Jan Seva Kedras in Ahmedabad, e-district model of Tiruvarur in Tamil Nadu
Development of an e-District framework applicable to all districts based on which ICT
initiatives may be undertaken by respective districts.
A computerized District Grievance Cell should be set up in the Collectorate.
An exclusive Vigilance cell at district level underoverall supervision of the District Collector.
Almost the whole of it is characterized by heavy precipitation (200 mm to 600 mm), rich biodiversity,
fragile hills, high seismicity, and a drainage system marked by extensive lateral valleys
in the north and transverse valleys in the south.
Arunachal Pradesh alone can generate as much as about 50328 MW - around 80% of the total
hydro-power potential of the NER and 34% of the total potential of the country.
The region was in a better economic condition a century ago. The vast river systems and small
rivulets were a means of livelihood for a majority of the population in the valleys and the plains.
Global trade was conducted through the sea-route, a network of inland waterways, and land
transportation through road and railways.
The quest for ethnic and regional identity, nationalism, and ideological motivations formented a
climate of insurgency in several parts of the Region. It has resulted in political fragmentation.
The standard of living of the people in the region, as measured by the per capita Gross State
Domestic Product (GSDP), has lagged significantly behind the rest of the country.
At Rs. 18,027 in 2004-05, it was less than the all-State average of Rs. 25,968 by 31 per
Assam, the largest among the North Eastern States had the lowest per capita income at
Rs. 15,661 which was lower than the national average by 40 per cent.
The entire North-East Region suffers heavily on account of floods and landslides.
Damages caused by floods, which assume an alarming proportion, in the Brahamputra and Barak
Valleys of Assam
- The Vision Document 2020 of the North Eastern Region prepared by the Ministry of DONER
and North Eastern Council. The purpose of this Vision document is to return the North Eastern Region to the position
of national economic eminence it held till a few decades ago; to so fashion the development
process that growth springs from and spreads out to the grassroots; and to ensure that the
Region plays the arrow-head role it must play in the vanguard of the country's Look East