**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**IEEE suggested a software maturity index(SMI) that provides an indication of the stability of a software product(based on changes that occur for each release of the product). SMI is calculated using the formula, which is mentioned in the question itself. Explanation of the formula is also part of the question. The product begins to stabilise when SMI approaches 1.0. SMI may also be used as a metric for planning software maintenance activities.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**Watson Felix model is used for cost estimation. Putnam resource allocation model is used in project planning. Quick-Fix model is used in software maintenance. Logarithmetic Poisson model is used in failure intensity. The option which matches all of these is D. So D is the correct answer

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**Cleanroom software engineering(CSE) is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards.This is the exact definition of CSE and so the correct option is C.

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**,What is Equivalence partitioning is given in the question. But we will have to know whether it belongs to what kind of testing, whether white-box, or black-box or the other two testing methods. Equivalence partitioning is a black-box testing method. Other examples are boundary-value analysis, classification trees, cause-effect graphs, etc are also black-box testing methods.

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Theorem.

I did not look for any textbook explanation for the above question. I went by my intuition and the answer is B. I hope all of you will agree and also know why..

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Software safety and hazard analysis are software quality assurance activities that focus on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may impact software negatively and cause an entire system to fail.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**So, looking at the options given for the answer, the PROJECT operator cannot create a table having more columns than the original table. Same number of columns also ruled out. More rows than the original table is also not correct. So, it will be Same number of rows as the original table, but less number of columns than the original table. SO, the correct answer is C.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**The question is very length and intimidating. But the answer is surprisingly simple. Rule out the wrong options first and you will always get the correct answer. There is a greater than symbol used in the query and we all know what it stands for. Options B and C says that Average salary less and equal. So both B and C are ruled out. Option A says Average salary of employee more than average salary of the organization. But in the query there is a where clause which is sex='M' and so the query is average salary of male employees is more than average salary of the organization. So the correct answer is option D.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**A relation is in the first normal form if the domain of each attribute contains only atomic values. It means atomicity must be present in the relation. So, the question clearly mentions the same. The domains of a,b,c,d include only the atomic values and so 1NF holds but the question is whether 2NF holds or not. A relation will be in second normal form if it is in the first normal form and all the non primary key attribute must be fully functionally dependent on the primary key attribute.

**Ans . **

None of the options

**Explanation :**The following are the one liners explaining different RAIDs and their specification. RAID 0 - It has no redundancy.It is JBOD(Just a Bunch of Disks) RAID 1 - Mirroring or shadowing RAID 2 - Applying memory-style error correcting codes to disks RAID 3 - Bit interleaved parity.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**The best explanation for golden ratio is in some well known maths websites. I am providing their links down. https://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/golden-ratio.html.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**Start and stop bits are used in serial communications for Synchronization

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**Prototyping refers to an initial stage of a software release in which developmental evolution and product fixes may occur before a bigger release is initiated. These kinds of activities can also sometimes be called a beta phase or beta testing, where an initial project gets evaluated by a smaller class of users before full software release

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**A software requirements specification (SRS) is a description of a software system to be developed. It lays out functional and non-functional requirements, and may include a set of use cases that describe user interactions that the software must provide. Software requirements specification establishes the basis for an agreement between customers and contractors or suppliers (in market-driven projects, these roles may be played by the marketing and development divisions) on what the software product is to do as well as what it is not expected to do.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**A vertex cover in a graph G is a set of vertices C such that each edge of G contains at least one vertex in C. An edge will be formed by two vertices. For each edge of G, at least one vertex should be in C, where C stands for the vertex cover. So, in the question above, vertex cover is represented by the subset V1. V1 is a subset of vertices V. Let us consider the edge (u,v). According to the vertex cover definition, any one vertex, either u or v should belong to V1. So, option C is the correct answer.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**Emergency fixes known as patches are result of Corrective Maintenance

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**Bit rate = baud rate X n

Baud rate = 600 baud/second.

n= number of bits = 6

bit rate = 600 X 6 = 3600

So, the correct answer is A.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**Following is used to demonstrate that the new release of software still performs the old one did by rerunning the old tests : Regression testing

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Refer to my post on “Computer networks”. I have solved many questions of the same kind. The most obvious approach is to associate the easy ones first. So, it will be Network layer to routing, Application layer to mail services. b-iv, d – iii, There is only one option which satisfies it and it is B. So, data link layer will be Node to node delivery and transport layer will be flow control. So, the correct answer is B.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**

The size of the image is 1024 * 800 pixels = 819200 pixels.

No of bytes / pixel = 3

So, total no of bytes = 819200 X 3 = 2457600 bytes

Therefore, Total no of bits = 2457600 X 8 = 19660800 bits

The data rate of a computer network connection is normally measured in units of bits per second(bps). One kilobit per second equals 1000 bits per second.

One megabit per second(Mbps) equals 1000 kbps = 1000 X 1000 bps . 10 Mbps = 1000 X 1000 X 10 = 10000000.

Therefore, time taken for transmission = 19660800 / 10000000 = 1.96608 seconds.

Hence, the correct answer is C.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**Attenuation means loss of energy. When a signal, simple or complex, travels through a medium, it loses some of its energy so that it can overcome the resistance of the medium. To show that a signal has lost or gained strength, engineers use the concept of decibel. The decibel(db) measures the relative strengths of two signals or a signal at two different points. dB is –ve if a signal is attenuated and +ve if a signal is amplified

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**Actually the question should be which command is used for closing the text file, which has been created using SET ALTERNATE TO . The answer is SET ALTERNATE OFF. SET ALTERNATE ON directs the output to text file. OFF disables the output to text file.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**media multidrop IS Thick Coaxial cable

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**when structure of database file with 20 records is modified ? EOF ( ) Prints. T

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**The SQL Expression Select distinct T.branch name from branch T, branch S where T.assets > S.assets and S.branch-city = DELHI, finds the name of all branches that have greater asset than any branch located in DELHI.

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**The data rate of the standard 10 Mbps Ethernet is 10mbps. The baud rate is twice as that. So it is 20 megabaud.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**The multiuser operating system, 20 requests are made to use a particular resource per hour, on an average the probability that no request are made in 45 minutes is e

^{-15}

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**On receiving an interrupt from an I/O device, the CPU branches off to the interrupt service routine after completion of the current instruction

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**Perceptron Learning is an example of Supervised training, in which the learning rule is provided with set of examples of proper network behaviour. A learning management system (LMS) is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of e-learning education courses or training programs.Colleges and universities use LMSs to deliver online courses and augment on-campus courses. Corporate training departments use LMSs to deliver online training the delta rule is a gradient descent learning rule for updating the weights of the inputs to artificial neurons in single-layer neural network. So all the three learning falls under the category of Error Correcting Learning

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**The question asks about the number of bits in the physical address. The word size is 1024. So, the number of bits required to calculate the offset into each page = 2

^{10}=1024=10 bits.

So for 32 frames(2^{5}) of 1024 words each,we would require a total of 5+10 bits = 15 bits. Therefore the option is D.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**If a basic feasible solution contains less than m+n-1 non negative allocations, then it is said to be degenerate. So, the correct answer is option A..

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**The number of gates for the different classification are as follows.

Small Scale Integration(SSI) - <10

Medium Scale Integration(MSI) - between 10 to 1000

Large Scale Integration(LSI) - >1000

Very Large Scale Integration(VLSI) - >100000

So the answer is option B.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**the maximum value of unsigned integer is 2

^{16}–1.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**An actor in an animation is a small program invoked once per frame to determine the characteristics of some object in the animation..

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**- = in X - = Y + 1 means X = X - Y + 1

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Bresenhem’s algorithm offers a significant advantage over the other methods, as it avoids floating-point arithmetic and rounding.

It is a classic example of an incremental algorithm that computes the location of each pixel along the line based on information about the previous pixel.

It uses only integer values and avoids any multiplications.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**The refresh rate of a CRT is the number of times per second the image is redrawn. It is typically 60 per second for raster displays. As the refresh rate decreases, flicker develops because the eye can no longer integrate the individual light pulses coming from a pixel. The refresh rate above which a picture stops flickering and fuses into a steady image is called the critical fusion frequency (or) CFF.

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send an unsolicited message (spam), especially advertising, as well as sending messages repeatedly on the same site. While the most widely recognized form of spam is email spam. Other options are examples of real security and privacy risks.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**In homogenous coordinates, we add a third coordinate to a point. Instead of being represented by a pair of numbers(x,y) each point is represented by a triple(x,y,w). At the same time, we say that two sets of homogenous coordinates(x,y,w) and (x’,y’,w’) represent the same point if and only if one is a multiple of the other. Thus (2,3,6) and (4,6,12) are the same points represented by the different coordinate triples. Also, at least one of the homogenous coordinates must be nonzero : (0,0,0) is not allowed. If the w coordinate is nonzero, we can divide through by it(x,y,w) represents the same point as (x/w,y/w,1). When w is nonzero, we normally do this division, and the numbers x/w and y/w are called the Cartesian coordinates of the homogenous points. The points with w=0 are called points at infinity. So, the correct answer is D.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**Resolution is the number of distinguishable lines per inch that a device can create. Resolution is defined as the closest spacing at which adjacent black and white lines can be distinguished by observers. If 40 black lines interleaved with 40 white lines can be distinguished across one inch, the resolution is 80 lines per inch or 40 line-pairs per inch. So, the correct answer is A.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**The number of bits required for an IPv6 address is 128 bits and The number of bits required for an IPv4 address is 32 bits

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**The proposition ~ q–vp is equivalent to q→p

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**Look at the options which are not going to be correct at all. Eliminate the wrong answers to get the right answer. Every pixel is represented by a n-bit number, the value of n is not mentioned. So, we rule out C and D options completely. So, it can be either A or B. But it is not A because the n-bit number is not going to be multiplied with 8 for a 8 bit machine. So, the correct answer is B.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**With reference to memory representation, even a two-dimensional array subscript is going to be converted into a single subscript for accessing or referring the memory location. So, it will be option C.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**To compare, overlay or cross analyze to maps in GIS All three options should satisfy.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**The options (a),(b) and (d) makes sense, but option (c) is not so clear. There is no order on the operand evaluation. It is decided by the operator precedence and associativity. So, the correct answer is C.

**Ans . **

B

**Explanation :**A telephone conference call is an example of same time / different place.

**Ans . **

A

**Explanation :**The probability of choosing correctly an unknown integer between 0 and 9 with 3 chances is 963/1000.

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**A Horn clause is a unique kind of proposition which has either one single proposition on the left hand side or an empty proposition. When a Horn clause does contain a proposition on the left side, it is sometimes refered to as a headed Horn clause. The Horn clause is named after Alfred Horn who studied this type of propositional clause (Horn, 1951).n, 1951).

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**The semantic model(s) of parameter passing are in,out and inout. The actual parameters are brought in, moved out, or brought in and moved out respectively.

**Ans . **

C

**Explanation :**A DFA or NFA recognizes only regular language. They do not recognize context free languages. The automaton to recognize the CFL may require additional amount of storage which will be used to store the data. Since the DFA’s or NFA’s cannot count and cannot store the input for future reference, we are forced to have a new machine called Pushdown Automaton(PDA). PDA is an NFA with the exception that PDA has an extra stack. PDA is of two types, Deterministic and non deterministic. Unless otherwise explicitly mentioned, a PDA is non deterministic. The definition will be easier for you to understand if you know NFA better. Please refer to a good book on Theory of automata for understanding the basics well(I recommend Padma Reddy for the beginners).

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**

**Ans . **

D

**Explanation :**The color of an object is largely determined by its diffuse reflection coefficient(kd). Kd is assigned a value between 0.0 and 1.0. 0.0 – for dull surface that absorbs almost all light 1.0 – for shiny surface that reflects almost all light. You should understand the range of kd and its meaning very clearly. For colored surfaces, there are three kd values, one for red, green and blue. Let us consider a polygon with diffuse color(1,0,0). It reflects all of the red light it is hit with, and absorbs all of the blue and green(because red has a value 1, and green and blue has a 0). If this red polygon is hit with a white light it will appear red. If it is hit with a blue light, or a green light, or an aqua light it will appear black(as those lights have no red component). If it is hit with a yellow light or a purple light it will appear red(as the polygon will reflect the red component of the light). The kd value given in the equation is kd=(0.8,0.4,0) What shall be the color of the object if the light used is blue and magenta?. That is the question. Let us consider the first color. Blue light falls on the object. But the blue component of kd is 0. It means that color is going to be completely absorbed by the object and it will appear black. So, when blue light falls on the object, the object will appear black. So, the color of the object will be Black and Red. The correct option is D.