It is the biggest country in the world with total 8 time zones. The ports of Russia allow it access to Baltic sea, Caspian sea, sea of japan and Barents sea. Ural mountains separate Asia from Europe.

West Siberian region is the extensive region of Russia. It is a source of natural gas and petroleum for the world. Central Siberian region is extensive petroleum reserve.

The rivers are navigable but only in summer. They freeze at the mouth of the arctic region. Lake Baikal is the largest freshwater lake in the world.

russian topography
Fig 1: Russia topography

Russia has arctic climate most prevalent – Tundra and Taiga.

Potato is an important staple food and crop of Russia. Agriculture has limited growing period.

Russia is the largest diamond producer and 2nd in arms export. It has the largest reserve of natural gas and 2nd largest in coal. It is the largest exporter of crude oil. 40% of nickel reserve.

coal fields of russia
                                                                                         Fig 2: Coal fields

oil fields of russia
                                                                          Fig 3: Oil fields

South east Countries:

south east asia

Fig 4: South east Asia


It has three main rivers Irrawaddy [rice bowl of Myanmar], Chindwin and Salween [largest]. Tropic of cancer passes only through Myanmar in South east Asia.


It was never colonized. The main geographical regions are Korat plateau, Dawna range and isthmus of Kra. The Mekong river [longest in SE Asia; known as lifeline of Cambodia] forms boundary between Thailand and Laos. The other river is Chao Phraya [lifeline of Thailand].


The Philippines has 7500 islands with manila located on the largest one. Manila is the HQ of Asian development bank. Worlds highest disaster risk country.


Largest archipelago in the world with 13500 islands. Java is the most populated island of the world. 2/3rd area is under forest. Coffee, rubber and oil plantations are seen. Only this country has land south of equator in the SE countries.


Western peninsula is more populated than the east. Oil, gas reserves and rubber plantations are famous.


Highest population density in the world. It is a city state and located on the straight of Malacca.

SE Asian countries receive rainfall from south west monsoon. Island nations get equatorial climate. Typhoons in summer are seen.

Economy of SE Asian countries

Agriculture is the main occupation except in Singapore and Brunei. Wet paddy cultivation is done. Rubber, palm oil, cocoa are crops grown here. Malaysia and Thailand have advanced agricultural practices but not in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam.

Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia are responsible for half of the tin production in the world.

Q.What is the correct sequence of occurrence of the following cities in South-East Asia as one proceeds from south to north? 1.Bangkok 2.Hanoi 3.Jakarta 4.Singapore Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2014)

  • 4-2-1-3

  • 3-2-4-1

  • 3-4-1-2

  • 4-3-2-1

Ans . C

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