Chapter 4: AFRICA


Atlas mountain range is the only mountain range in Africa. It is to the north. Sahara, Namib, Lubian, Libyan and Kalahari Desert are present in Africa. Chad, Sudan and Congo basin are present in the central region.

map of africa
Fig 1: Africa

It lies mostly in the northern hemisphere. But only continent throughwhich both the tropic lines and the equator pass through.

Rivers and Lakes

Nile river is the longest river. It is the lifeline of Egypt. Nile originates at lake Victoria and empties into the Mediterranean sea.

Lake Victoria is at the border of Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania.

important rivers and mountains of africa
Fig 2: Important rivers

Lake Tanganyika is between Congo, Zambia, Burandi and Tanzania and Lake Malawi is between Malawi, Tanzania and Mozambique.

Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the world by area. It is the largest tropical lake in the world.

Lake Tanganyika, the world's second largest fresh water lake by volume and depth. It is the worlds longest freshwater lake.

Collectively, they contain about 25% of the planet's unfrozen surface fresh water.

Islands between Africa and Latin America are all British overseas territories.

great lakes of africa
Fig 2: Great lakes of Africa


Cultivable lands are three times more than those currently under cultivation.

Low productivity and subsistence farming goes on in Africa and most of the land is un-irrigated.

Also there is low access to fertilizer and no awareness of soil conservation. Cocoa is the most exported agro product comprising 70% of total exports.

Central African region has 50% of the water resources but only 20% of the population.

Foreign investment led to expulsion of local people. There were instances of land grabbing.

Chapter Review

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!