Chapter 5: AUSTRALIA


It is a Continent country with 6 states. It’s the Smallest continent but largest island.

The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated in the eastern states and on the coast.

continent of australia

Fig 1: Australia demography

Artesian basin of Australia is confined groundwater storage. It is the largest and deepest freshwater storage in the world and responsible for water supply to the central region of Australia.

Murray and darling river basin are found in south Australia. Their basin forms the temperate grassland called downs. It is known for dairy farming and wheat cultivation.

Sheep rearing of merino breed is done as they give high quality wool.

Australia has the world’s largest known uranium reserve. 10% of gold reserve of world is here. Argyle diamond mine is one of the largest in the world. It has valuable pink and red diamonds.

Coal, Uranium and Natural gas reserves

Fig 2: Coal, Uranium and Natural gas reserves.

Great Barrier Reef:  largest coral reef system. Coral is important part of marine ecology. It is also a world heritage site. 

The maximum population is seen in the eastern part of Australia. Perth in west, Darwin in north are other major cities.

 Australian climate mapFig 2: Australian climate

New Zealand:

It has a north island and south island separated by cooks straight. Mount Tauhara is the dormant volcano with Lake Taupo in it.

Climate of north island is china type and south island is Laurentian type.

Meat, wool processing and dairy industry are known here.

Chapter Review

Score more than 80% marks and move ahead else stay back and read again!