Chapter 10: LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES
India accounts for 17% of the
World's Cattle population.. 64% of the buffalo population and 4%
is rate of increase in milk. The per capita availability of milk
is 281 gm/day. World average is 284 gm/day.
Rise of Amul
a cooperative due to effort of Sardar Patel in Kheda. Dr.
Vergese kurien led the cooperative during the white revolution
from 1950-1973. Amul became the first to make cheese and baby
products from buffalo milk.
It was founded
1964 by Lal Bahadur Shastri with Vergese Kurien as its chairman
and HQ at Anand. The NDDB launched Operation Flood to
replicate Anand pattern in other parts of India. This made India
the leading producer of milk in the world.
- Phase 1: Mother
dairies in four metros where production, collection, marketing
from rural areas to metros.
- Phase 2:
Thousands of sheds and outlets by milk cooperatives covered.
Vaccination developed for animal health.
- Phase 3: Increase
infrastructure for procurement. R&D in animal health and
nutrition. Feed, veterinary service, artificial insemination
and dairy education for union members.
milk production and increased rural incomes of small and
empowerment as NDDB with SEWA established 6000 dairy
cooperatives run by women.
developed indigenous expertise in field of animal nutrition,
health, dairy engineering, food technology, artificial
NATIONAL LIVESTOCK MISSION
the needs of fodder and feed stock for animal nutrition. The
ministry of agriculture launched this in 2014-15.
pricing policy and milk credit cards at minimum interest rates.
for cow products.
center for cow urine to enhance farmer income.
veterinary colleges and institutes.
of semen banks
universal vaccination for cattle.
breeds are facing threat of extinction. Currently 83% of cow
population in indigenous but this had declined by 8% since
2007. This is due to cross breeding, farm mechanization,
cultivation of cash crops, decline of grazing areas.
breeds are better as they are suitable for arid conditions,
drought related work, tolerant to diseases, can be fed
agricultural wastes and though milk yield is less but nutrition
quality is better.
Schemes for protecting indigenous breeds: Ministry of
Kamdhenu Breeding Centers
for certified genetics and repository of germplasm.
each in north and south India.
2. Rashtriya Gokul mission
Indian breeds in a scientific manner.
productivity of Indians breeds and upgrading germplasm.
fishery of India is lagging as Indian ocean
is least explored of all oceans for fishery. 75% of marine
fishery comes from west coast. [Gujarat > Kerela >
offshore fishery bad due to poverty among fishing community. Low
use of technology and poor infrastructure for storage and
packaging. In addition, monsoon and cyclones hinder fishing.
fishery production is more than marine also growth rate is
higher [WB > Gujarat > Kerela > Andhra >
Maharashtra]. Reasons are large delta of Ganga and high demand,
extensive lakes and lagoons or strong cooperative movement.
is the second largest inland fish producer and seventh largest
in terms of marine fish production. Overall India is the
second largest fish producer.
Blue revolution in 5th FYP in 1970
of a fish breeding development agency for brackish water was
created. The goal was to develop new techniques of fish
breeding, cultivation, export and marketing.
This led to
increase in shrimp production. Nellore, AP became shrimp
capital of the world.
of high value fin fish or shell fisheries
of organic aqua culture, water recirculating units, technology
for inland saline areas.
and codex norms to be followed.
and cold storage infrastructure development
on fishing during breeding seasons, not using fine size nets.
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