Chapter 11: INDIAN MINES AND MINERAL WEALTH
Indian metallic and non-metallic
between shield regions and metallic mineral regions:
Aravalli, Singhbhum, Dharwad
Fig 1: Shield regions and Rift valleys of India
Chotanagpur and Dharwad plateau
are located around the rift valleys like Damodar, Mahanadi,
Fig 3: Coal
reserves of India
reserves are located along the Saurashtra shelf, KG basin,
Bengal Bangladesh shelf, Brahmaputra shelf.
India has 22
refineries 17 are public sector, 3 are private and 2 are joint
venture. India imports crude oil and exports petroleum
products. India’s refining capacity is more than the demand.
Fig 4: Petroleum
reserves of India
anthracite coals, limestone
– salt, thorium
The mineral rich
belt in India has five locations:
iron, chromium, mica and coal.
2. Chattisgarh region
limestone and coal field in Godavari - Wardha belt
3. Southern belt – East Karnatak + AP
lignite, coal – Nellore
4. South west belt
– Ratnagiri, Goa, Dharwad
5. North west belt
– Rajasthan and Gujarat
lake – depression in desert filled with water. When water dries
salt and minerals are left.
Types of Iron ore:
electronic industries [70% - iron]
iron and steel industries [2nd largest producer after
Russia] [ 65% - iron]
pigment for manufacture of paints [50% - iron]
source of manganese and magnesium
reserves located in:
– all iron producing regions, Chaibasa – biggest
Kodarma [largest in the world]
uranium and processes it to get yellow cake which is magnesium
diurnate. Yellow cake then processed to uranium dioxide in
hyderabad [nuclear fuel complex]. NFC sends it to all
India's three step nuclear program:
U-235 is hit by neutron and it breaks into barium, krypton and
energy also neutrons are released. This is the reaction for
nuclear reactors, atom bombs.
uranium is 99.3% fertile i.e. U-238 and 0.7% fissile i.e.
U-235. The fissile element has the ability to fission in
excited state. The fertile has to be converted to fissile by
adding neutron i.e. Pl-239.
TABLE 1: INDIAN REACTORS
Natural uranium as
Fissile uranium as
and hydrogen and slow them down, this induces future
neutrons than needed and so enrichment of uranium
product is plutonium, tritium
By product is
less heat generated
More energy/unit ;
If more than one
neutron available for collision then reactor is super-critical;
if only one is available then critical and less than one means
sub critical. To reduce the rate of reaction a neutron absorbent
like boron or cadmium is inserted.
present in largest quantities in India. It is used in thorium
based reactors to get energy.
three step nuclear program:
Step 1: P.H.W.R use
uranium + D2O to get plutonium + energy
Step 2: Fast Breedor
Reactors use plutonium + uranium oxide to get U-233 + energy
Step 3: Thorium based
reactors use Thorium+U-233 to get energy
used fuel in P.H.W.R to get reactor grade plutonium for fast
breedor reactors. FBR use liquid sodium as coolant and produce
more fuel than they consume. FBR to be at kalpakkam.
reactors can be constructed only after successful operation of FBR for 30-40 years.
Nuclear liability law in India:
for US companies to get insurance in their countries.
of defective parts can be sued for damages by the operator
problem with the law is India is a signatory to international
convention for supplementary compensation [I.C.S.C] that doesn’t
allow this. Private parties may not have the capacity to bear
such damages. But this shall save tax payers money in case of
counter this deadlock the nuclear insurance pool was created
with Rs.1500 crore by government and state owned insurance. Now
suppliers need to pay the premium. The pool will cater to
operators and suppliers.
case of damage, pool will be used to cater to victims, the
government will bear additional liability of Rs.1100 crore
and additional liability shall be borne by I.C.S.C.
atoms merge to form helium and enormous energy is released. This
is the prinicple for hydrogen bomb and energy from sun.
Gondwana formation. Not coking coal or metallurgical coal
high ash fusion temperature
low sulphur content and high ash content.
low calorific value.
good quality coal found together. this leads to selective mining
which is wasteful
high grade coking coal and imports are needed
blending of coal is needed as by washing the ash content goes
down and transportation is easier.
mining leads to pollution and smuggling
techniques are primitive so high casualty
contain coal bed methane but no policy for allowing joint
exploration of both. Hence methane allowed to escape this is
of coal to consumer locations. The productivity of mines is less
as output per man shift is less than that of developed
It is a
technique of extracting coal from deep, unrecoverable mines
where manual mining is costly or impossible.
Two wells are
water + oxygen + gasification agent pumped from one well.
Synthetic gas comes out.
is used for generating electricity, making fertilizers and
needed than conventional mining and hydraulic fracking.
- It is found in
sedimentary rocks where other hydrocarbons are trapped. It is
either found alongside other hydrocarbons like crude oil or
butane are used in LPG.
needs airtight trucks for storage and leak proof pipes for
transport. This increases capital cost. Natural gas occupies
four times the space of a gasoline equivalent substance. In
India natural gas exists alongside oil. No exclusive reserves
are found and sometimes natural gas has to be re-injected in
the field to get the oil to come to the surface.
terminals – NG is liquefied then transported to long
distances. Liquefaction plant is at exporting country and
re-gasification at importing countries.
- They are present
in the deep sedimentary sands. The reservoirs have no natural
fractures so hydraulic fracturing technique is used to extract
gas. Initially drilling is done where a fluid is injected by
which the gas comes to the wells.
Gas requires an expensive transport network in terms
- 1. Turkmenistan – Afghanistan – Pakistan – India [TAPI] – the pipeline
passes through hostile regions. International agency not
willing to take responsibility to lay the pipeline. Since
Turkmen law doesn’t allow that agency to get a stake in the
gas field that shall feed the pipeline.
- 2. Iran Pakistan India [IPI] – Iran constructed pipeline on its part
and gave loan to Pakistan for construction of pipeline. But
due to US sanctions on Iran the loan was cancelled. This
pipeline too passes through hostile region of Baluchistan and
the supply of gas can be cutoff by Pakistan anytime.
deep sea pipeline from India to Iran is also being discussed.
Another gas pipeline via Russia and central Asia via TAPI line
to India are in discussions.
Fig 5: Proposed Pipelines of Natural Gas
Q.In India the steel production industry requires the import of (UPSC CSAT 2015)
All of the above
Saltpetre (Potassium nitrate) is not used in the production of steel.
It requires 0.8 tonnes coking coal to produce one tonne of steel.
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