Chapter 6: WATER RESOURCES
Rain, rivers, lakes, ponds are
important source of water in India.
India receives 2nd
highest rainfall for a country of its size. 1st is Brazil.
Water availability is 2000
cum/person/year and by 2050 it will be 3500 cum/person/year
but availability shall be 1200 cum/person/year.
Rivers are also important water
source. The Himalayan and peninsular rivers are the two types of
Not flood prone
Large, huge flood plain, low
slope and forms meander.
No shifting of course – due to
hard rock surface, no shifting of course, small
Waterfalls at any course
Can be diverted for irrigation
Can’t be diverted for
irrigation without pumps as river basin located on
Waterfalls at youthful stage
Waterfalls at any stage
HIMALAYAN AND PENINSULAR RIVER
is the storage pool for groundwater. It stores rainwater that
percolates through the soil or cracks. When all pores are filled
it’s called saturation zone. Upper layer of the saturation zone
is called water table.
1: Groundwater resources
capacity of India is 30-40 million hectares. It is found in
selected locations only:
- Northern alluvial
plains. Peninsular river basins and deltas of rivers.
- Bhabhar [foothills of
- Eastern and western
- Peninsular granite
and gneissic rocks.
Ganga rivers groundwater reserve
is highest at 17 million hectares. Indus river has a ground
water usage rate of 80%.
India’s groundwater use is more
than the replenishment rate and so aquifers are drying up. 60%
of India's irrigation through tube wells and dug wells. This
hurts the water resources. Also unplanned urbanization,
increasing population, overuse affect it.
Flouride, arsenic, nitrate
fertilizers are affecting underground water resources.
Fig 2: Hydrological map of India
unit that drains at a common point. E.g: A main river and its
Fig 3: Watershed
In watershed management we
construct small check dams to stop flow of water so it can
percolate. No large dams and no stopping of the river flow.
Afforestation on river banks,
soil conservation are other methods.
Drought-prone area Program +
Desert development program + integrated wasteland development
Integrated watershed Management Program under the department
of land resources, ministry of rural development.
Watershed management can work
successfully under community participation, decentralization
and strong Panchayati Raj system.
||Situated near the town of Bhimtal in Kumaun Divison of Uttarakhand, it is a fascinating lake with
an island in the centre.
||It is the largest coastal lake in
India. The lake was formed due to the silting action of the Mahanadi River which drains into the
northern end of the lake.
||Dal is a famous lake in Srinagar.
||The lake is one of the largest wetlands in the peninsular India.
||The lake was an important habitat for an
estimated migratory birds such as Grey or Spot-billed pelicans. Rich in flora and
fauna, it attracts birds from Siberia and eastern Europe between the months of October and March.
||It is also called the only 'Floating Islands Lake'
in the world due to the floating Phundis (floating islands) on it.
||It is the largest salt lake of India.
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