Chapter 1: INDUSTRIAL
LOCATION FACTORS - TIMBER, PULP & PAPER
The important factors that determine
whether a particular place is suitable for development of
industries are distance from raw material, nature of raw material,
market demand, labor, energy, transport, capital availability and
Timber based Industries
Factors affecting the location of timber industries are:
- Raw materials: The raw material needed for
timber industries are wooden logs. These are high weight loss
raw materials as only 40% of the weight of logs are converted
to timber and the rest is discarded as waste. Thus to save the
cost of transporting waste materials the timber industries are
located in jungles near the source of raw materials.
- Rivers: The transportation of logs is
difficult hence flow of rivers is used for this purpose. The
rivers have to clean and pollution free. Thus transportation
also determines the location of timber factories.
- River direction: This should be towards the
- In temperate forest the commercial exploitation is easier as
small number of species are located in a region. Softwood
trees are found that are easier to chop.
- The forest areas are connected by roads. Ground is covered
by snow making it easier to push logs.
- The winter seasons make agriculture tough. Hence farmers
find lumbering as suitable alternative. The lumbering activity
is highly mechanized due to which small manpower is needed.
- The proximity to markets e.g. US meant that demand would be
- Government policy on Silviculture and strict regulation of
timber industry ensure that reforestation takes place and
forests grow back.
Lumbering in tropical regions is difficult as:
- Unlike temperate regions tropical forests have large number
of tree species in a particular location. This made commercial
- The hardwood trees found in such areas are difficult to
float on water and thus difficult to transport.
- The market areas are also far from these regions.
- Transportation of timber to market is difficult due to
Paper and Pulp Industry
Canada is one of the major newsprint producers of the World.
- The forest area is large enough to supply timber
needed for the pulp and paper mills.
- The fast flowing rivers ensure availability of cheap
hydro-electricity and so pulp and paper mills that are highly
mechanized can run without problems.
- Due to the low population density of Canada the
availability of labor is a problem but high mechanization
means that industry can be located even in remote regions.
- The rivers ensure fast transportation of timber to the
factories and so easy availability of raw materials for the
- The World's largest consumer of paper is US and so
paper manufacturers are assured of good demand.
Pulp and paper industry developed in Britain too due to cheap pulp
imports from neighbouring countries. The pulp and paper mills were
located at ports to minimize transportation cost. Norway, Sweden
and Finland too have a good production of paper due to presence of
rivers for transportation, availability of cheap hydro-electricity
and mechanization due to labor shortage.
Commercial Fishing Industry
The fishing industry is highly developed in the Northern
Hemisphere in places like North America, Europe, Japan and Norway.
- Plankton growth is needed for fishes to feed on. Plankton
grows in continental shelves as the sea is shallow and
sunlight can penetrate till the bottom. Planktons also thrive
in coastal waters due to high mineral content and prefer
cooler water.The best fishing grounds are located near
continental shelves. The indented coastlines in the Northern
hemisphere means a larger continental shelf and more
- The other places where fishing grounds of the world
are located where hot and cold currents meet like Off the
coast of Japan and US,Canada coast.
- Market for fish was high in mountainous regions of Asia and
Europe.The low scope for agriculture made fish the chief diet
in these regions. The demand for cod liver oil was great,whale
oil was a chief source of fuel. Also since fish gutting caused
significant weight loss the processing was done near the
vessels or around the coastal plains.
- The other factors are temperate climate is suitable for
preservation of fish, indented coast provides site for ports
and hilly terrain makes it unsuitable for agriculture so
people prefer fishing.
- The lack of capital for investment in mechanized boats and
large trawlers isn't available in tropics so fishing industry
- The tropical fishes are of multiple varieties but in small
groups so commercial exploitation easier. The oil content of
tropical fishes is higher so less desirable for eating.
The reason why fishery is developed in Northern hemisphere is
also since the north has a higher population and so more demand,
it also has larger continental shelf.
Fig 1: Continental shelf of the world
Fig 2: Major fishing grounds on World
Questions for UPSC Mains
Explain the reasons for the location of pulp and paper industry in Canada and US
Explain the reasons for the why fishing industry is well developed in Northern hemisphere