Chapter 3: INDUSTRIAL
LOCATION FACTORS - WOOL, JUTE, WHEAT AND CORN INDUSTRY
Wool industry needs favorable
climatic condition like dry climate. The damp,cold conditions in
Northern hemisphere are unsuitable for it and so Southern
hemisphere leads in wool production. In countries like Australia
the climate is dry and so agriculture not feasible. Sheep rearing
has better opportunities as sheep can survive in adverse
conditions. The high number in which sheep breeding was done meant
better economies of scale i.e. less cost per unit due to high
quantity of rearing.Thus Australia became dominant in the wool
However due to low demand in
Australia for woolen clothes most of the wool is exported.
Australia doesn't have the skilled labor for making woolen
Rise and Fall of Wool Industry in
Yorkshire was known for wool
industry due to local source of raw material. Water supply and
electric supply also provided. But later the wool manufacturing
declined as it couldn't compete with wool imports from southern
Indian industry also was
concentrated in the northern parts as market for woolen clothes
was in north. The Indian wool was coarse and had to be mixed with
Australian wool for making garments.Wool was non perishable and
non bulky and weight loss wasn't a factor so the manufacturers
could be located independent of the raw material location. Hence
industry was concentrated close to the market.
Woollen textile is. one of the oldest industries of India. During the ancient and medieval periods woollen clothes were manufactured at the cottage industry level.
India is not self sufficient in quality wool production. Good quality wool is, however, imported
This industry provides employment to 27 lakh workers in the wide spectrum of activities
Problems of the Woollen Textile Industry:
Shortage of quantity and quality of wool
Competition with more advanced countries
Competition with synthetic fibres
Shortage of power
Low quality of goods, Lack of market and Strikes by the workers
Jute was grown prior to partition in
India in Bengal. It was the only crop that could withstand
flooding in the region. The energy requirements for jute
processing were met from coal fields near Bengal. The labor
intensive technique was possible due to cheap and abundant labor
from nearby states. Kolkata was the Capital of India till 1911 and
so no shortage of financial institutions for capital needs.Water
requirement for dyeing, bleaching of jute cloth met from Hoogly
India is the largest producer and second largest exporter of jute goods in the world, contributing about 35 per cent of the total output of the world. It is a labour intensive industry which directly
and indirectly provides job to more than 4 lakh people. The industry is, however, facing a tough
competition from synthetics and its export market is shrinking.
The industry made tremendous progress in the later part of the 19th century. Subsequently, the industry was boosted by the two world wars. The industry suffered a serious setback in 1947 due
to the partition of the subcontinent. After partition about 80 per cent of the jute growing areas
went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh), while nearly 90 per cent jute mills remained in India.
Jute industry is mainly a raw material based industry. Most of the jute mills are in the jute producing
areas of the country. West Bengal alone accounts for-85 per cent of the tota] jute production of the
country. The high concentration of Jute mills in West Bengal is because of the following factors:
Availability of raw material: Jute cultivation needs highly productive, well-drained soils and hot and humid climate. These conditions are ideally available in many tracts of West Bengal
and lower Assam.
Cheap and skilled labour is available in West Bengal, one of the most densely populated state of the country.
Cheap water transport through the Hugli river.
Availability of coal from the Raniganj coal-mines.
Export facility through the port of Kolkata and Haldia.
Jute industry in India is essentially export-oriented. India stands second after Bangladesh in the
export of jute and jute products.
- Majority of jute growing areas went to Pakistan after
- Due to opposition from labor unions Indian businessmen became
reluctant to invest in modernization.The Bangladesh industry
grew and began to compete with Indian products.
- Competition from cheaper synthetic fibers.
- Lack of marketing strategy to showcase the benefits of
biodegradable jute products to environmentally conscious users
in foreign markets.
Prairies are known as "Granaries of the World".
- Soil of prairies has high phosphorous content and so good
for wheat. The centuries of rotting grass has made the soil
fertile. Topography suitable for wheat cultivation as wheat
cannot tolerate stagnant water. Large landholdings mean that
machines can be used at every stage this is important as
laborers are less unlike in Asia.
- Rail and road connectivity is high and even produce from
remote regions can reach market.
- Food processing infrastructure present at railways e.g.
Grain elevator storage where wheat is cleaned, graded,
processed and sold. Railways are also connected to waterways
for transport and export.
- Canadian wheat board is a statutory body that is sole
purchaser and exporter. Farmers are given schedules to
minimize price fluctuations and distribution inefficiencies.
Quality control for exported wheat is seen.
Fig 1: Wheat producing areas.
Rice Industry in China
China is major producer of rice
- The climate is humid and good rainfall ensures two
sowing seasons for rice.
- Sericulture is done alongside rice farming and waste
from sericulture is given to rice farming.
- Shanghai port is important for export and Yangtze river
is an important waterway and connects many cities.
- Labor is abundant.
- Diesel operated tractors for ploughing, special rice
planters and high yielding varieties of seeds.
- Collectivization system promoted by the Government: Tier
I was commune that had 3000 households and was responsible
for supervision of tiers below it. Tier II had 300
households and worked to lease land to teams,
infrastructure development etc. Tier III was team with 30
households that grew crops as per quota.
- Reforms were made in this system and credit was given
directly to farmers, if grains produced in excess of quota
then it could be sold in market. Farmers were allowed
ownership of agro-machinery.
China has more area under irrigation and grows food crops
on its best lands unlike India that grows cash crops.
US Corn and Livestock Belt
US farmers prefer to grow corn over wheat as it has higher
productivity than wheat. The corn is used to fatten animals.
The meat is then exported.
Government also subsidizes inputs to agriculture. Farm
holdings are large so mechanization is employed at every
stage e.g: Combines for threshing, aeroplanes for spraying
Road, rail connectivity to farms and markets is high.
Exports to foreign markets can be done from New York ports.
Apart from corn soya bean too is grown as it has many
Fig 2: Corn belt in USA
Questions of UPSC Mains
Why China is the major producer of Rice?
Why Jute industry flourished in India?
Factors needed for the growth of wool industry
Factors needed for the growth of wheat industry
Factors needed for the growth of US Corn and livestock industry