INDUSTRIAL LOCATION FACTORS - DAIRY, BEVERAGE INDUSTRY
Milk is a perishable commodity
and so has to be consumed soon after manufacturing. The
cattle to be raised for milk doesn't need large amount of
space. Thus dairy farmers stay close to markets. The same
goes for poultry products and vegetable farms. As the demand
for these is high and shelf life low the producers are
located closer to the market. However when markets are
located far away from markets the production policy changes.
Milk is converted into more concentrated items that have
higher shelf life like butter,cheese, ice-cream etc. This
has an added advantage that price per unit item is higher
and can withstand cost of transportation and remain
competitive. Dairy products when produced give skimmed milk
as a by-product and so this is used as feed for pigs.
Therefore dairy regions are also known for pork, bacon
Concentration is higher if the
distance from market increases. 1 pound Cheese needs 10
pounds milk and 1 pound butter needs 20 pounds of milk but
milk to ice-cream doesn't have much weight-loss.
Dairy Industry: Zones
The climatic zone has led to
formation of long plains of undulating grass which is
nutritious and grazing can be done throughout the year. The
cattle rearing has been an occupation for generations so NZ
has traditional skill. Government policy of strict quality
control over exports mean that products are respected in
international market. Scientific breeding practices,
vaccination of cattle and infrastructure for storage and
transportation of milk is available. Since the domestic
demand is low milk is converted to products like cheese,
butter etc and exported.
Countries like Holland,
Denmark, Norway are known for dairy products. Here too the
grass is nutritious and traditional skill is present.
Quality infrastructure for storage and transportation of
milk is available.
countries are net importers of milk as the grass is wiry and
low nutritive value.
African nations are lacking in
the transport and storage infrastructure. The dairy farmers
don't have training or use scientific practices. Tropical
cattle have low milk yield and even if temperate cattle are
imported their survival is difficult.
The dairy belt and the corn belt are
interdependent. The corn is used as cattle feed and the
cattle are used for dairy and beef. Chicago is the location
of slaughter-houses. USA dairy industry is highly mechanized
to compensate for labor shortage. Cattle is reared as
climate and terrain don't permit agriculture. Indoor cattle
rearing is done. Farmer cooperatives own cooling and
transportation infrastructure. The capital needed for
investment is available from banks.
Meat industry is based on cattle,pigs and sheep's. In areas
of rough terrain agriculture is uneconomical so cattle are
bred and then sent to slaughter houses. USA is known for its
beef industry that extends from West to East. The western
states have to rear cattle indoors and use corn to fatten
them. Cattle are used for beef and dairy products. Slaughter
houses in Chicago then transport them to major cities or
export them. But due to high weight loss cattle are now
slaughtered in western states and meat is sent to east.
Pig rearing in China is done closer to market like cities
where demand is high. This is because pork is staple food.
Pigs can be bred indoors or outdoors. They can be fed
anything. They multiply faster and can be prepared for
slaughter houses sooner.
However in New Zealand pigs are reared closer to dairy
regions are skimmed milk obtained from converting milk to
other products is used for fattening pigs.
Poultry farming in India is done closer to markets as there
is high demand for poultry products. It is also done in
rural areas away from markets as it is a cheap source of
proteins for people.
In USA too the farmers rear poultry in rough terrain where
agriculture is difficult. The soil conditions don't affect
poultry rearing. Also contract farming is carried out by
farmers for MNC's.
Fruits and vegetables are perishable items and so grown
closer to market areas. Just like dairy and poultry
products there is a good demand for horticulture products
too. Therefore farmers prefer locations closer to markets.
Farmers located away from market prefer growing of food
grains as they have higher shelf life and can withstand
cost of transportation.
California and Florida both grow oranges but in
California they are sold and in Florida they are turned
into juice. This is because California has a good demand
for oranges and Florida is located far from markets so has
to concentrate fruits into products that have higher shelf
life and can withstand cost of transportation.
Factors affecting location of horticulture industry apart
from markets are transportation and storage
Grapes can be cultivated in areas where cold isn't
present and hence tropical weather is most suitable. The
Mediterranean regions have dense population and
generations of experience and so skilled labor is
available. This is needed as Grapes need personal
attention and slight change in handling,manure,
temperature, pressure make a difference in taste. Also
unlike USA mechanization isn't possible in Europe as
terrain is rough.
Since Grapes are perishable they are turned into Wine.
This makes them more valuable and liquor is in high demand
anywhere. The Geographical Indicator tag means the brand
name is preserved.
Beer is made from barley this is grown in places that are
too cold for grapes. Whiskey is made from rye in countries
where grapes can't grow. Both barley and rye can't be used
for good bread and so instead of exporting the raw product
as food grains. It is converted to beverage that higher
cost and can withstand transportation.
Questions for UPSC Mains
Explain factors needed for growth of Dairy sector?
Explain factors needed for growth of Viticulture sector?
Explain factors needed for growth of Horticulture sector?
Explain factors needed for growth of Meat sector?