INDUSTRIAL LOCATION FACTORS - PLANTATION INDUSTRY
Plantations are of three
types: Tree plantations like oil, coconut, rubber, cocoa and
coffee. Field crops like sugarcane and banana. Annual crops
like cotton, jute, tobacco and groundnut. Tree plantations
have high gestation period and unlike annual crops land has
to kept unproductive for years. Hence it is not preferred by
Cocoa needs wet and warm climate which is available in Ghana
as it lies in the equatorial belt. Large labor
force is needed as mechanization can't be used cocoa fruit
needs to be plucked with hand. Ports available for export to
high demand markets like Europe and US. Ghana doesn't have
the market nor the infrastructure or skilled manpower needed
for cocoa processing into finished products. It doesn't
process cocoa before exporting as cocoa loses flavor quickly
so importing nation needs to do processing.
Rubber is obtained from Latex
which is taken from rubber tree. A delicate incision is made
without damaging the tree. Then sap is collected by cups.
This requires high number of cheap and skilled labor. Rubber
trees can't tolerate cold weather so tropical climate
suitable also moisture needs are high. Vulcanization process
was invented so natural rubber found many applications. The
synthetic rubber was invented by US scientists and it
affected demand for natural rubber.
Malaysia is an equatorial
country and so climate is suitable for rubber plantations.
The research and development has led to newer techniques for
collecting sap. Government policy encourages re-planting of
rubber trees as newer trees yield 3-4 times more rubber.
Also strict quality control norms for export mean that
quality is stable and product is respected in market.
Sugarcane has high weight loss
as a raw material for sugar. Only 10% by weight of sugarcane
can be converted to sugar. The sugar mills that manufacture
coarse brown sugar use sugarcane as input and so need to be
located closer to the source of raw material. Sugarcane also
loses sugar content after cutting so needs to be processed
fast. Sugar mills produce Bagasse [energy source, pulp and
paper industry] and molasses [ethanol] along with press mud
[waste]. Bagasse is used for energy production.
Sugar refineries use brown
coarse sugar and get refined sugar. As weight loss or shelf
life isn't a problem refineries can be located at ports
where the use imported sugar or near markets.
Indian sugar industry is
located mostly in Maharashtra and UP. Maharashtra has strong
labor force and high area under cultivation. Sugarcane
cooperatives are present. Crushing season is longer and
sugar content is high as weather is moderate due to
influence of oceans.Capital requirements are met and Mumbai
region serves as a port and a market for sugar.
Cuba : Sugar bowl of
Hot climate and North east
trade winds made climate suitable for sugarcane. The
American capital was heavily invested in bringing more land
under cultivation. Fertile, calciferous soil is present in
Cuba. USA and Europe are the world's largest sugar markets
and so demand is high.
Tea and Coffee plantations
Factors affecting Tea
- Tea plantation is done in areas having high population
density. The task of weeding, pruning, manuring and
plucking needs highly skilled labor. Since tea needs to be
grown on hill tops mechanization is needed.
- Even while drying, rolling, fermentation and packaging
of tea skilled manpower is needed. So tea plantation is
done in areas that are having high population density.
- Tea processing is done in plantation areas as high
weight loss is seen.
- Tea can't tolerate stagnant water so grown on hill tops
and also can't tolerate cold.
British Tea industry thrived
during the colonization period. Tea was imported from
colonies like India, China and exported to European nations.
The post-colonization era was a major problem as colonies
now directly exported to European regions.
Tea industry of
- Darjeeling climate has low temperature and morning fog
that gives high grade leaf. Densely populated neighboring
regions and presence of tea estates mean the skilled labor
- Soil is potash rich and has good quality.
- Demand is high in domestic and foreign markets and
proximity to Kolkata ports is a major advantage.
- Since tea is grown on hills stagnant water isn't a
The Darjeeling tea industry is
due to British efforts as they developed an alternate
industry as indigo plantations weren't giving good results.
Coffee is grown on hill slopes
as it can't tolerate water-logging. It needs to be protected
from excess sunlight atleast in the initial stages. The
coffee berry has to be hand picked and since plantations are
on hill slopes the mechanization is also not possible.
Coffee loses flavor after roasting and so only preliminary
processing is done in the home country and remaining in the
Brazil Coffee Industry
- Volcanic soil remains
productive for years without any added fertilizers.
- Labor is abundant in Brazil
as it is densely populated.
- Special rail and road
transport for connecting estates with ports and markets.
- Coffee has universal demand
- Climate is suitable due to
sea breeze and also tall leguminous plants are grown that
provide shade to coffee crops.
Questions for UPSC Mains
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Sugar industry in Cuba and Maharashtra
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Coffee industry in Brazil
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Cocoa industry in Ghana
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Rubber industry in Malaysia
Explain the factors responsible for growth of Tea industry in Darjeeling