Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY
it means “Study of the Earth”. It has two parts:
D. Location of Industries.
Fundamentals of geography:
represent angular distance from center of the earth.
or “Parallels” are concentric circles.
regions: From equator to 23.5° N “Tropic of Cancer” and 23.5°S
“Tropic of Capricorn”. Heat surplus regions.
from 23.5°N to 66.5°N and 23.5°S to 66.5°S. Heat deficit
is responsible for different pressure and planetary winds.
Fig 1: Longitude and Latitude
is tilted on its axis by angle of 23.5°. This is the reason
for the seasons. The variation in the length of day and night
from seasons is also due to the tilt.
Earth completes a rotation around sun in 365 days. In March the
hemispheres are equidistant from the sun this is spring.
the northern hemisphere is closer to the sun so it’s summer in
the north and winter in the south.
is in September when again both hemispheres are equidistant. In
December the southern hemisphere is closer to the sun and hence
there is summer in the south and winter in the north.
2: Revolution of Earth
the angular distance of a place from the prime meridian [0°].
Greenwich line, UK and 180° = international date line
Date Line moving to east subtracts a day and moving west adds a
day. Western hemisphere is one day behind and eastern hemisphere
is one day ahead.
selects its standard meridian [for India – 82.5°]. India’s time
is 5.5 hrs ahead of Greenwich meridian time.
Fig 3: Meridians of
12 pm at Greenwich then at 15° E its 1 pm and 15° W its 11 am.
Since 15° is 1 hour.
Note: France has the highest number of time zones -->
Equator passes through: Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Congo,
Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, and Indonesia.
Paraguay, Brazil, Botswana, Madagascar and
Algeria, Niger, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India,
Oman, Bangladesh, Burma and Taiwan.
runes through United Kingdom,
France, Spain, Algeria, Mali and Ghana in Africa
through UP, MP, Orissa and Chhattisgarh
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