Chapter 2: PRE HISTORIC CULTURE

Introduction 

The Indian history is divided into following phases:


Old Stone Age [Paleolithic]


Middle stone age [Mesolithic]


New stone age [Neolithic] and Metal age.



The dates of these periods are overlapping. They are arrived at by using scientific calculation like carbon dating and dendro chronology [counting tree rings in wood]. 


Paleolithic age: Before 10000BC 


  1. Located in rock shelters and caves.
  2. Found close to water bodies.
  3. Hunting and gathering edible foods, tubers.  

Mesolithic age: 10000 BC to 6000 BC 


  1. Lived in rock shelters and caves.
  2. Settled for long periods in a place so cultivation and agriculture is practiced.
  3. Domesticated animals found.
  4. Bow and arrow was used in hunting – gathering
  5. Burial of dead started.
  6. Microlithic artifacts. 

Neolithic age: 6000BC to 4000 BC 


  1. Agriculture, domestication of animals, polishing tools and manufacturing pottery.
  2. Mud brick houses, polished tools, cultivation using animals.
  3. Transportation using animals and burial using urns.
  4. Advancements in agriculture and clothes of wool and cotton.

Metal Age:


  1. Copper and bronze were used.
  2. Smelting and crafting metal artifacts were started.
  3. Implements were used in agriculture.