Chapter 22: MARATHAS AND ADMINISTRATION UNDER MARATHAS
The Marathas held important
positions in the Deccan sultanate. But Shivaji and his father
shahaji were responsible for the establishment of Maratha
kingdom. The peculiarity of the region like the mountains and
the dense forest led them to adopt guerrilla tactics.
He inherited the jagir of
Poona from his father. He had initially captured many
forts from the Bijapur kingdom. The defeat of Chanda Rao More of
Javli gave him domination over the Mavala region.
He attacked the Bijapur
kingdom and captured many forts. The sultan sent Afzal khan to
capture him but Khan was killed by Shivaji in a daring manner.
The Emperor Aurangzeb
watched the growing popularity of Shivaji. He sent Shaista
Khan to defeat Shivaji. Shivaji lost Poona to Shaista khan
but in a daring raid Shivaji attacked the Mughal camp and killed
Shaista khan’s son and injured him. Shaista khan was recalled by
Shivaji then attacked the
Mughal port of Surat and plundered it. This time Aurangzeb
sent Mirza Raje Jai Singh to capture Shivaji. In the siege
of Purandar fort Shivaji had to negotiate with Jai Singh
and signed the treaty of purandar. Shivaji had to give up
majority of his forts and owe allegiance to the Mughals.
His minor son Shambaji was
given a Mansab.
Shivaji visited Agra but was
imprisoned. He escaped by cunning and return to mavala. He
started his conquest against the Mughals and recaptured all lost
He crowned himself
Chhatrapati in Raigad.
Shivaji was an able
administrator and a great military commander. The king was the
pivot in the administration and was assisted by ministers
directly responsible to him.
Most of the
administrative reforms of Shivaji were influenced by the Delhi
He collected land
revenue after surveying land. He appointed his own revenue
3. Chauth and sardeshmukhi were taxes collected in
the neighbouring territories of Mughals or sultans. Chauth was
one fourth of the land revenue to be paid to avoid raids by
Marathas. Sardeshmukhi was an additional levy of 10% on lands
Marathas claimed as hereditary rights.
The army and navy
played an important role in his system. The army of 30000-40000
was maintained. Mavli foot soldiers played an important role
Shivaji was a daring
soldier and military genius. He
captured around 240 forts. He
built a navy and hence called Father of the Indian Navy.