Chapter 8: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL ART

Gandhar School of Art


The Gandhar art emerged in areas around Peshawar.


The Sakas and Kushana were the real patrons of it.


The Gandhar form was influenced by Indian as well as Greco – Roman style. Buddha’s sculptures in various image, sizes and forms were made. Yogic posture of Buddha. The reliefs depict his birth, renunciation and preaching.


 Features:


  1. Moulding human body with features like muscles, moustache and curtly hair.
  2. Thick drapery with large and bold fold lines.
  3. Rich carving, elaborate ornamentation and symbolic expressions.
  4. The main theme was  Buddhism – Mahayanism
  5. Grey sandstone was used.
  6. Only Buddhist religion was depicted.
  7. Patrons were Kushana. 


The Stupa’s were made taller with ornamentation to make them attractive. The monasteries were also influenced.


Mathura School of Art


The Buddha’s face had a spiritual feeling which was absent in Gandhar art. The Apsara's and Yakshini's too were carved beautifully. The school also carved Siva, Vishnu and their consorts Parvati and Lakshmi.


  1. Indigenous only.
  2. Red sandstone used.
  3. All religions were depicted.
  4. Patrons were Kushana.
  5. Buddha in Padmasan form. First to carve Jatakas on long rock panels. 


Kangra School of painting:


When Nadir Shah invaded India, the Mughal artists fled to hills and founded it. Its main inspiration was Vaishnavism.


Amravati School of Art 


  1. Indigenous influence
  2. white marble used
  3. Buddhist religion depicted
  4. Satvahana dynasty was patrons.
  5. Jatakas tales of Buddha
  6. Located in Krishna Godavari valley