Chapter 19: NON COOPERATION
start of 1920s disillusioned many Indians due to the
violent events like martial law in Punjab, jallianwala bag
massacre by general dyer and the Rowlett bills. The Indian
Muslims too were affected as the British had promised fair
treatment to turkey after the war but had reneged on it.
Furthermore the hunter commission to investigate
General Dyer's actions had exonerated him.
Treaty of Sevres had completed the dismemberment of turkey
and so the khilafat committee formed by Ali brothers
Maulana Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali and got a
recommendation from Gandhiji to start a Satyagraha. The
khilafat movement was later merged by Gandhiji with the
non cooperation movement.
congress too agreed to consider non cooperation with the
government as it too was disillusioned by the failed
promises of reform of Montague Chelmsford committee 1919
[Govt of India act 1919].
Non Cooperation Movement
movement was launched on 1 august 1920 and the congress
too accepted it. The main program was to:
titles and honors.
government schools, colleges, courts and foreign cloth
from civil service and non payment of taxes were not
covered initially but were kept for later stage.
non violence, Hindu Muslim unity, opening of national
schools and panchayats were encouraged to solve disputes
in the movement. Revolutionary terrorists groups too
agreed to support this movement. A new constitution of
congress was made by Gandhiji to attain Swaraj by
peaceful means. A working committee, provincial
committees and village level participation were
boycott was very successful. CR Das and SC Bose were at
the forefront of the movement in Calcutta. Boycott of
courts was less successful. Most successful item was
boycott of foreign cloth. A declaration made by
Muhammad Ali [khilafat committee] that no Muslim should
join the army was treated with contempt by the government
and he was arrested. Subsequently all major leaders made
the same declarations and the government was forced to
ignore this incident.
movement was however becoming increasingly violent as
people targeted the known loyalists of the British. The
congress volunteer corps was becoming a parallel police.
The government now felt that its policy of ignoring
protestors had failed and now started repressions by
banning volunteer’s corps and raiding congress and
congress now persuaded Gandhiji to start the next phase
of the non cooperation that was civil disobedience.
Gandhiji petitioned to the Viceroy saying that civil
disobedience shall be launched unless the restrictions
on civil liberties were removed. This was ignored.
Bardoli was chosen by Gandhiji to launch no tax
before this a procession of khilafat and congress was attacked
by police in chauri chuara. The angered mob lit the
police station and burnt 22 policemen.
hearing this Gandhiji decided to withdraw the movement.
Fallout of the Cancellation
leaders blamed Gandhiji was unilaterally withdrawing the
movement because of a stray incident.
was argued that Gandhiji had done this for the safety of
the property class as they would have to bear the brunt of
the civil disobedience movement. Gandhiji was a pro
the reasons might be different like government could crush
the civil disobedience movement under the excuse of a
single violent incident or the movement was itself ebbing
as the masses had no energy left to continue the movement
or that one stray incident could have easily spread havoc
in other parts or Gandhiji felt that the masses yet didn’t
have the readiness for another campaign at such an early
Q.With reference to Rowlatt Satyagraha, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. The Rowlatt Act was based on the recommendations of the ‘Sedition Committee’
2. In Rowlatt Satyagraha Gandhiji tried to use the Home Rule League
3. Demonstrations against the Simon Commission coincided with the Rowlatt Satyagraha
Select the correct answer using the code given below. (UPSC CSAT 2015)
1 and 2 only
2 and 3 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . B
Sedition committee of 1918 suggested it.
Gandhiji tried to use home rule leagues, satyagraha sabhas and pan-islamist groups in this satyagraha.
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