Chapter 22: YEARS OF STAGNATION
withdrawal of non cooperation and the subsequent arrest
and imprisonment of Gandhiji led to stagnation in the
congress. Here a new line of political activity emerged to
continue the spirit of resistance this was suggested by CR
“Deshbandhu” Das and Motilal Nehru. They wanted to participate in
the legislative councils and obstruct their work
completely from within.
and Nehru put this before the congress but it was
defeated. They resigned and formed the Congress
khilafat Swaraj party or later called as Swaraj party.
They were called as Pro-changers while their opponents
became No-changers. The swarajist and the no changers
differed on one issue: What to do during the inactive
phase after the mass movement? This temporary void had to
be filled with working in the council.
no changers believed that council entry would lead to
neglect of constructive work and working with the masses,
loss of Zeal and political corruption. The differences
between these two groups would have led to a split but
both agreed on mutual accommodation. The split was
avoided as both sides knew that only mass movement and
not parliamentary work would give Swaraj, both agreed
importance of Gandhiji’s leadership and also both
realized importance of unity.
Hence in 1923 the
congress agreed to allow them to participate in the
Gandhiji believed in the futility of council entry he too
supported them in the interest of unity. In the Belgaum
of the congress which was presided by Gandhiji for first
and last time he ratified their decision and ended
conflict between pro changers and no changers.
Work by the Swarajist:
to take executive route to enact legislations by defeating
them in legislative councils at center and state.
speeches which were widely reported and read.
on repressive legislations and regulations.
people and kept their spirits alive.
led the no changers to win many municipalities. The no
changers believed these could be used for constructive
Drawbacks of the Swarajist:
absence of mass movements communalism raised its head.
of the politics of obstruction had reached and further
confrontations weren’t possible. The real concessions
could be obtained by only mass movements. But the
swarajist had no policy of backing their working in the
councils with mass movements.
convince their coalition partners on every matter.
few swarajist couldn’t resist the pull of parliamentary
The Swarajists lacked a policy to coordinate their militancy inside
legislatures with the mass struggle outside. They relied totally on
newspaper reporting to communicate with the public.
An obstructionist strategy had its limitations
They failed to support the peasants' cause in Bengal and lost support
among Muslim members who were pro peasant.
Aftermath of the Movement
During the second elections the
swarajist faced pressure from communalists and the liberals.
It got a lesser majority at the center and the provinces. It
resigned from the central and provincial councils in
response to Lahore sessions resolution and the beginning
of civil disobedience.
The death of CR "Deshbandhu" Das also led to decline of
the Swaraj Party.
Q.With reference to Congress Socialist Party, consider the following statements:
1. It advocated the boycott of British goods and evasion of taxes.
2. It wanted to establish the dictatorship of proletariat.
3. It advocated separate electorate for minorities and oppressed classes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (UPSC CSAT 2015)
1 and 2 only
1, 2 and 3
Ans . D
The CSP advocated decentralized socialism in which co-operatives, trade unions, independent farmers, and local authorities would hold a substantial share of the economic power.
As secularists, they hoped to transcend communal divisions through class solidarity.
Some, such as Narendra Deva or Basawon Singh (Sinha), advocated a democratic socialism distinct from both Marxism and reformist social democracy.
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