discussed the revolution of the bomb was just during the end
of the Bengal partition movement. Such groups were
suppressed during the world war but under the amnesty scheme
were released. They actively participated in the non
cooperation movement but the sudden withdrawal of the
movement shattered their hopes.
people started feeling disillusioned by the tactics of the
national leadership of non violence. They had no interest in
the council politics of the swarajist or the undramatic work
by the no changers. They resorted to violence as they felt
it was the only way of ensuring freedom.
Revolution of the Bomb
Ramprasad Bismil The Hindustan republican army
was formed to overthrow colonial rule using force. Before
the armed struggle, propaganda had to be spread and men had
to be recruited, trained and armed. This needed funds.
train robbery was done but the government’s response
was harsh and Bismil was hanged with others. Several other
leaders were sentenced to long imprisonments. Only
Chandrasekhar azad remained at large. Bhagat Singh and
others met at Pherozshah kotla ground in Delhi and organized
the H.R.A under Chandrasekhar azad's leadership and renamed
it Hindustan socialist republican army.
HRSA moved away from individual assassinations and towards
the mass movements. But the death of Sher
e Punjab Lala Lajpat Rai, by brutal
lathi charge enraged them. Bhagat Singh and others
assassinated the person responsible Deputy Superintendent
Saunders. The HRSA wanted the masses to know about their
changed objectives and the need for revolution.
Singh and Dutt were asked to throw bombs in the central
legislative assembly where the Public safety bill was
being passed. The aim wasn’t to kill but to make
the deaf hear. The subsequent trial could be used to spread
the propaganda and arouse the public opinion. This plan
failed as due to betrayal by a fellow HRSA member the police
found about the involvement of Bhagat Singh in the killing
of DSP Saunders.
Singh and others were also tried for the Lahore conspiracy
case [killing of Saunders] and sentenced to death. During
the trial their fearless attitude was reported by the
newspapers and Bhagat Singh became a household name. The
news of his death was a day of mourning by all.
too tried to convince the viceroy for leniency to these
youths but failed. This failure was seen by some as
deliberate attempt to please the british by Gandhiji inorder
to get concessions for the congress. In many places black
flags were shown against Gandhiji.
Revolutionary movement in South
Bengal branch of revolutionaries was also not behind. This
group had links with the congress. Because of the congress
it got access to the vast masses and the congress got links
to grassroots groups. They aided the swarajist in their
work. After the death of CR Das the congress leadership
in Bengal got divided into two groups one led by SC Bose
and other by JM Sengupta.
Yugantar joined forces with the first and Anushilan with the
second. The revolutionary groups then stagnated as the
rivalries between Yugantar and Anushilan were constant. But
younger groups developed which had fraternal relations with
both Yugantar and Anushilan. Chittagong group was one such.
It was under the leadership of Surya Sen. It organized a
group raid on the armoury and several other raids.
Bengal revolutionaries went ahead of northern
revolutionaries as they organized collective acts on
colonial rule but the aim was same to inspire youth and
undermine and demoralize the bureaucracy.
of Ajit Singh was born in 1907. He was a voracious reader
and most well read of political leaders of that time. He
read all books on revolution, socialism, freedom struggles.
He also established many studies circles for political
discussions. He never believed in terrorism or
individual heroism. His faith in Marxism which meant
he believed in power of mass movements.
was secular and was completely against communalism.
He was an atheist.
Fallout of the Movement
main drawbacks of revolutionaries were that they couldn’t
start mass movement. They in fact had lost touch with the
masses. They couldn’t politically activate them nor could
they move them into political actions.
their contribution to the national movement was great. They
were fierce patriots. They helped develop a sense of
sacrifice in the people.
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