Chapter 25: CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
started the program by marching with his followers from
Ahmadabad to Dandi to break the salt tax. Gandhiji even
asked women to participate in the movement by picketing in
front of liquor shops.
on foreign cloth was strictly followed even by mill
owners. In north where scope of salt Satyagraha was less
people defied government authority by not paying
chowkidari tax. No rent no revenue campaigns too were
started in some states.
Round table conference
Simon commission submitted the report but no mention was
made in it of dominion status. This infuriated the
moderates. The round table conferences that were held to
discuss with the parties but congress did not participate
in this exercise which rendered it useless.
British prime minister announced that the congress would
be participating in the round table conference. Viceroy
released Gandhiji and all the leaders of the congress so
that they could respond to the PM's message. The congress
working committee then authorized Gandhiji to hold
discussions with viceroy. In these talks Gandhi Irwin
pact was signed which was a provisional settlement.
this pact all political prisoners not arrested for
violence were released. The confiscated lands not yet sold
were returned, government employees who had resigned were
given leniency, the making of salt was allowed on coastal
villages and non violent picketing was allowed. Congress
also agreed to withdraw the civil disobedience. They
would also participate in the second round table
decision of not returning land of those who had lost it to
third party and no decision on commutation of death
penalty of Bhagat Singh and others was criticized. The
congress met in Karachi after the pact was signed to
endorse it and let Gandhiji participate in the second
round table conference. However six days earlier Bhagat
Singh and others were hanged even though Gandhiji tried
his best to save them he couldn’t. All along Gandhiji’s
route to Karachi he was greeted with black flags.
Results of the civil
- 90000 were
imprisoned [thrice that of non cooperation movement]
- import of
foreign cloth, liquor fell
revenue from cigarettes and rent was affected.
- Elections to
legislative assembly were boycotted.
Drawbacks of the movement:
participation of Muslims was less due to the advice of
the communal leaders and the government’s efforts to
push communalism as response to nationalism.
workers didn’t participate in large number except in
civil disobedience movement was the most popular and
organized mass movement of the freedom struggle.
Karachi Session of the
Karachi session in 1931 was known for the drafting of the
fundamental rights and the national economic program. This
was for the first time that congress decided what Swaraj
meant for the masses.
rights of free speech, free press, free assembly, and
freedom of association;
the law irrespective of caste, creed or sex;
neutrality of the
state in regard to all religions;
elections on the
basis of universal adult franchise; and
compulsory primary education.
agricultural indebtedness and control of usury;
Better conditions for
workers including a living wage, limited hours of work and
protection of women workers;
to organize and form unions to workers and peasants; and
state ownership or control of key industries, mines and
means of transport.
and script of the minorities and of the different
linguistic areas shall be protected.
Result of Round table
to attend the second round table conference in London. The
British political opinion was against giving any
concessions to India. The government had handpicked
communalists, careerist, landlord, bureaucrats for the
round table conference. It wanted to show that congress
didn’t represent majority. At the conference the British
refused to concede the demand for freedom. Hence Gandhiji
returned empty handed.
policy meanwhile had changed and their stance hardened.
The new policy discarded all truce provisions and declared
Gandhiji couldn’t be treated as equal with the government.
Also it had prepared for a showdown with the nationalists
to prevent any revival of the movement. The government had
armed itself with draconian ordinances and martial law. It
had unleashed brutality on peaceful picketers. Thousands
were arrested and put in jails.
Second Phase of Civil
landed back the congress working committee had called
for a meeting to discuss the revival of civil
disobedience. But government arrested all top leaders of
the congress. The draconian ordinances passed were to
establish martial law. Non violent protestors were
brutally oppressed. No tax and no rent campaigns to were
treated with harshness.
people fought back the leaders couldn’t build a tempo and
the movement was crushed. In all the second phase of the
civil disobedience movement lingered till 1934 and then
was withdrawn by Gandhiji.
like SC Bose and Vithalbhai Patel criticized Gandhiji’s
decision. They wanted the congress to be reorganized with
new leader. But the decision was due to the fact that
people needed to rest and regroup for the next fight. They
had not lost their faith in congress yet.
Q.Who of the following organized a march on the Tanjore coast to break the Salt Law in April 1930? (UPSC CSAT 2015)
V.O Chidambaram Pillai
Ans . B
He was arrested in April 1930 for leading a salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast.
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