The congress won a majority in six provinces and formed coalitions in 2 more. The aim was to bring reform in legislature and administration and continue gandhian strategy of Struggle – Truce – Struggle.

Although the ministries had limited power but they took steps to implement reforms, reduce the draconian conditions; improve the condition of the people. The repealing of draconian laws, revoking bans on political groups, removing press censorship and returning arms licenses were some of the actions seen.

Police was the most repressive arm of the state and here too the ministries stopped the CID from shadowing political workers and police powers were curbed.

These measures were not seen in the non congress provinces. The lands confiscated during the civil disobedience movements were returned and pensions of those who had resigned during the movement were reinstated. Agrarian reforms were limited as the congress had to depend on the upper house which was dominated by landlords and bourgeois class for it.

Also the real power was in the hands of the governor and the viceroys. However the congress tried its best to implement agrarian reforms. Reservations were also given for depressed classes in government service. Labor reforms were carried out.

The congress government’s also aimed to develop planning through the National Planning Committee formed by SC Bose in 1938.

J Nehru said that political work and education of the masses too had to be carried out along with constitutional work.

Drawbacks of the congress rule:

1.      Great deal of factional and bickering on personal and ideological fronts.

2.      Careerist and opportunist joined the congress to associate with a party in power.

3.      Slackening of the movement and weakening of moral fibers.

The congress ministries resigned after British joined the WW-II and dragged India into it. The resignations had a positive effect that they brought both right and left wings closer on question of joining the war. The congress had shattered one myth of the British: That Indians aren’t fit to rule.


Q. In the context of Indian history, the principle of “Dyarchy (diarchy)” refers to (UPSC CSAT 2017)

  1. Division of the central legislature into two houses.

  2. Introduction of double government i.e., Central and State governments.

  3. Having two sets of rulers; one in London and another in Delhi.

  4. Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.

Ans . D

Q. With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events :
1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
2. Quit India Movement launched
3. Second Round Table Conference
What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events ? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

  1. 1-2-3

  2. 2-1-3

  3. 3-2-1

  4. 3-1-2

Ans . C

  1. 2nd RTC: 1931, September to December

  2. Quit India movement: 1942, August.

  3. RIN Mutiny: 1946, 18th February

Q. The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to? (UPSC CSAT 2017)

  1. Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments

  2. Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India

  3. Impose censorship on national press.

  4. Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.

Ans . D

  1. The Butler Committee (1927) was set up to examine the nature of relationship between the states and Government.