Chapter 27: CONGRESS RULE
won a majority in six provinces and formed coalitions in 2 more.
The aim was to bring reform in legislature and administration
and continue gandhian strategy of Struggle – Truce – Struggle.
ministries had limited power but they took steps to implement
reforms, reduce the draconian conditions; improve the condition
of the people. The repealing of draconian laws, revoking bans on
political groups, removing press censorship and returning arms
licenses were some of the actions seen.
the most repressive arm of the state and here too the ministries
stopped the CID from shadowing political workers and police
powers were curbed.
were not seen in the non congress provinces. The lands
confiscated during the civil disobedience movements were
returned and pensions of those who had resigned during the
movement were reinstated. Agrarian reforms were limited as the
congress had to depend on the upper house which was dominated by
landlords and bourgeois class for it.
the real power was in the hands of the governor and the
viceroys. However the congress tried its best to implement
agrarian reforms. Reservations were also given for depressed
classes in government service. Labor reforms were carried out.
government’s also aimed to develop planning through the
National Planning Committee formed by SC Bose in 1938.
Nehru said that political work and education of the masses too
had to be carried out along with constitutional work.
Drawbacks of the congress rule:
of factional and bickering on personal and ideological fronts.
opportunist joined the congress to associate with a party in
the movement and weakening of moral fibers.
ministries resigned after British joined the WW-II and dragged
India into it. The resignations had a positive effect that
they brought both right and left wings closer on question of
joining the war. The congress had shattered one myth of the
British: That Indians aren’t fit to rule.
Q. In the context of Indian history, the principle of “Dyarchy (diarchy)” refers to (UPSC CSAT 2017)
Division of the central legislature into two houses.
Introduction of double government i.e., Central and State governments.
Having two sets of rulers; one in London and another in Delhi.
Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.
Ans . D
Q. With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events :
1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
2. Quit India Movement launched
3. Second Round Table Conference
What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events ? (UPSC CSAT 2017)
Ans . C
2nd RTC: 1931, September to December
Quit India movement: 1942, August.
RIN Mutiny: 1946, 18th February
Q. The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to? (UPSC CSAT 2017)
Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments
Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India
Impose censorship on national press.
Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.
Ans . D
The Butler Committee (1927) was set up to examine the nature of relationship between the states and Government.