Chapter 28: PEASANT MOVEMENTS IN THE 1930's AND 40's
depression had affected the price of the produce which was
reduced by nearly 50% but other factors like taxes and
rent were still the same. This caused lot of stress on the
farmer. The civil disobedience movement was launched and
the farmers were asked to not pay rent or only pay 50% of
it. The government repression was harsh on them. The young
militant people were developed here.
were influenced by the leftist ideology by Nehru and Bose
and the communist, socialist group. After the movement was
withdrawn these people were looking for an outlet to their
anger. The kisan leaders then formed All India Kisan
Sabha as an answer. The kisan manifesto was made and
given to the congress. This was important to the
influencing of agrarian program of the congress.
was the first session of congress in a rural area. It
was presided over by Jawaharlal Nehru. Sane guruji
worked hard to make in a success. The resolutions passed
were related to peasant welfare, minimum wage for
landless agriculture labor.
activities of kisan Sabha were to educate and organize the
peasants. Exhort them to attend meetings, pass resolutions
on key demands. Agitate to get rights. Organize cultural
shows to create awakening. The main demands of kisan like
rent relief, no forcible eviction and no illegal duties
were taken up by the kisan sabhas. A march to the district
headquarters was arranged to present demands to the
tebhanga agitation was the most popular. The share cropper
of Bengal demanded that the share of jotedar of the
produce should be reduced from half to one third. Also the
cultivators wanted to store the produce in their godown's
and not of the jotedar's.
Second World war
tide of peasant awakening was checked by the outbreak of
WW-II. Here the congress ministries resigned and severe
repression was unleashed by the government. When Hitler
declared war on Soviet Union the communist party took a
pro war stance. This created a rift between non communists
and communists in the kisan Sabha. The call given by the
main brass to stay away from the Quit India movement was
seen as an alienating factor.
Features of the Kisan
features of the kisan movements were that they led to post
independence agrarian reforms. Even though the demands of
these movements were only related to immediate economic
grievances and not the national struggle but they were
were not directed at overthrowing the agrarian structure
but reforming its oppressive parts only. The national
struggle had influenced the peasants struggle and he too
used methods like Satyagraha and civil disobedience. The
methods were non violent too.
movements had created an awakening and politicized the
farmers which then led to peasant struggles.