United Nation Organization has its head quarters in New York city, USA. It was established on 24th October 1945 and this day is celebrated as the "UN day". UN Official languages are English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Spanish. However the working languages are English and French.

It was established in 1964. HQ - Geneva. It meets once every 4 years to discuss matters of trade. It carries out policy oriented work on information economy. Publishes a report on ICT diffusion and raises awareness to narrow digital divide.

Vienna based body specializes in commercial law reform. It works to ensure that all states pass their own laws to ensure legal protection to e-documents. It has 60 members with 6 year term and elected by the UN General assembly.

It has 185 members. It won the 1969 Nobel prize for Peace. Its HQ - Geneva and it was established in 1919. The governance structure of International Labor Organization has representation from Government, Employers and Workers in the ratio of 2:1:1.

It has 195 members and was established in 1945. It is a specialized agency of the UN.

This is another specialized agency of the UN. It was established in 1946 with HQ at NewYork. It won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965. It works to provide assistance to children.

It is established in 1965 with HQ at NewYork. It publishes Human Development Report.

It was established in 1972 with HQ at Nairobi, Kenya. The UN General Assembly elects the UNEP Governing council. The Two main programs of the UNEP are publication of the "Global Environment Outlook" report on Environment and the "Earthwatch" program which is used to keep a constant watch on Environment.

Environment Divisions:

  1. Early Warning and Assessment.
  2. Technology - Industry - Economics.
  3. Regional Cooperation
  4. Global Environment Facility
  5. Communication and Public Information
  6. Environment Policy implementation.

It was established in 1945 and is one of the five principal organs of the UN.

It is the only principal organ with headquarters outside NewYork city. HQ of ICJ is in Hague, Holland.

The Judgment of the ICJ is final and no appeals are allowed. However as the implementation of the judgment is with the UNSC, the members can block it.

There are 15 judges of the ICJ elected by the UNGA and approved by the UNSC. Their term is 9 years. The court languages are English and French.

The ICJ does not prosecute individuals but only settles disputes between nations.

Founded in 1967 with HQ in Brussels. Its motto is "Unity in Diversity". It was founded by France, Luxemburg, Belgium, Holland,West Germany. It won the 2012 Peace Nobel.

21 Pacific rim nations are members of APEC. The main aim is to promote free trade and economic cooperation. HQ - Singapore.

10 members of South East Asia. It was established in 1967 to accelerate economic growth, social progress. HQ - Jakarta, Indonesia. It was established by Bangkok declaration. India is a dialogue partner of ASEAN.

ASEAN Regional Forum

  1. Dialogue platform between foreign ministers of ASEAN and its full dialogue partners.

  2. To provide a diplomatic solution to regional problems.

Working of ASEAN Regional Forum

  1. Minimal institutionalization.

  2. Chair rotated annually.

  3. Use of both Track - I and Track - II diplomacy.

Tracks of ASEAN Regional Forum

  1. Track 1: Officials discuss security measures.

  2. Track 2: Scholars, government individuals, priate think tanks, NGO's.

Process of ASEAN Regional Forum

  1. Tier 1: Annual ARF meeting at the level of Ministers in July or August in the Capital of ASEAN.

  2. Tier 1.5 - Seminars held by scholars and officials from members states acting in their personal capacity.

  3. Tier 2 - ARF senior official meeting.

  4. Tier 3 - ARF inter session support group on confidence building measures.

VISION 2020 - ASEAN Regional Forum

Strengthening ARF's role in raising awareness on security challenges and intensifying Confidence building measures.


To implement Vision 2020 by taking practical action in the fields of

  1. Disaster relief

  2. Maritime security

  3. Non proliferation

  4. Disarmament

  5. Counter terrorism

  6. Peace keeping.

Adopted on 10 December 1948 by the UNO. Hence 10 December is celebrated as "Human Rights Day".

  1. Every one is born free and equal.

  2. Right to life, liberty, security, against discrimination, nationality, education, job, food, vote, cultural life, against torture, seek asylum, choose religion, speak securely, access public service and join it, organize peaceful meeting".

"Dignity and Justice for All of Us" - Motto

It was setup in 1998 by the Rome Accord and has 120 signatories.

Function is to prosecute individuals accused of war crimes or genocide. The jurisdiction of ICC is only on the signatory nations. It doesn;t have a separate police force and relies on police of member nations. It also is referred cases by the UNSC. Maximum penalty it can give is only life sentences upto 30 years. It is not a part of UN and has jurisdiction on cases committed after 2002.

US, India, Pakistan are non signatories.

HQ - Hague, Netherlands.

One of the Six principal organs of the United Nations.

It has 54 seats and region specific quotas.

The General assembly elects members for 3 year term.

All decisions are taken by a simple majority and presidency changes annually.

The main functions of ECOSOC are:

  1. Conducting studies on social issues.
  2. Coordinates economic, social and cultural activities of the UN.
  3. Works by cooperation between several special committees like UNESCO, FAO, ILO, WHO etc.
  4. It aims to raise standard of living and assured employment for the people.
  5. Creation of a spirit of human rights and promote a higher cultural and education standard.

HQ - Mauritius, Working language - English. It is a intergovernmental body with 21 members who are countries bordering the Indian ocean.

India is one of the founding members of the IORA. The organization was officially launched in 1997.

It aims to promote closer cooperation between government, business and academia.

The objectives of IORA are as follows:

  1. To promote sustainable growth and balanced development of the region and member states.

  2. To focus on opportunities for development, shared interest and mutual benefits

  3. To promote liberalisation, remove impediments and lower barriers towards a trade within the Indian Ocean rim.

Problems of the IORA - Jakarta summit, 2017

There have been criticisms of the IORA as an agency that does little but offers words. The success of this organization depends on the work of the powerful nations of the Indian Ocean Region like India, Australia and Indonesia. These have already worked to bring the organization ahead. Until a few years back this agency had little importance for the members.

Indonesia has organized the first summit of the group this year. “Jakarta accord” shall be released and hopefully it shall have a pathway for peace and prosperity in the region.

The IOR has seen increasing interference of China as a growing power. The policy makers of China have used their resources to build economic and military partnerships in this region. The Silk route and investments in building a port in Sri Lanka are examples of this. India’s inward looking policies have been a handicap to its integration with the regional economies of IOR. The situation must change to overcome the imbalance caused by China’s entry.

Setup in 2009 with Brazil, russia, India and China. Later South Africa also joined in 2010.

The first meeting was held in Russia. The countries meet annually.

The BRICS group covers 40% of World's population and 20% of World's GDP.

New Development Bank

Created on 2014 during the B.R.I.C.S. summit in Brazil.

The HQ - Shanghai.

All 5 B.R.I.C.S. members shall have equal voting powers and the aim is to overcome balance of payments crisis and provide loans for sustainable development and infrastructure.

$50 billion is the starting capital and $100 billion is the authorized capital and $100 billion is the contingency capital.


  1. It will help the 5 nations get over volatility in $ exchange rates.

  2. The countries shall get loans without sanctions from the developed countries.

  3. If the western nations impose sanctions in the future then these may be ineffective.

  4. IMF/WB/ADB governance structure in favor of European nations, US and Japan and BRICS nations have little say in important decisions in these institutions.

  5. Yuan might become an alternative to the dollar.

Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and USA are members.

China came up with the idea to lend money for infrastructure and development projects specifically for Asian countries by setting up a multi lateral development bank.

Asia needs $800 billion for infrastructure investments.

Asian development bank cannot lend more than $10 billion and the IMF and World Bank cannot cater exclusively to the Asian continent.

China has many motives behind the setting up of this bank. It has huge forex reserves and AIIB has authorized capital of $100 billion out of which China shall pay 50% and this shall be used for lending activities and China can earn revenue on this.

China's Belt Road initiative of building a trade route through Indian ocean and land route towards European markets could get a boost through this.

The IMF, World bank and the Asian Development Bank are controlled by Europe, USA and Japan respectively and their governance structure isn't reforming. This means that China even though has a economy comparable to USA but can't have much say in the decisions taken in these bodies.

To reduce the hegemony of these bodies, a new multilateral agency might help as it might force the other financial institutions to reform themselves.

AIIB Structure

  1. Board of Governors shall be the highest decision making body with voting power as per share holding. Share holding shall be as per GDP.

  2. China and India shall have the largest and second largest shareholding.

  3. Board of directors and a President shall be selected based on merit. They shall submit budget and reports on performance of the bank. They shall be responsible for day to day administration.

Countries represented by their Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors. The Chair rotates annually and there is no permanent secretariat or staff.

G20 Agenda is Two tracks:-

  1. Sherpa: Focuses on non economic and financial issues such as development and anti corruption and food security. Carry out important planning, negotiation, implementation tasks continuously.

  2. Finance track: Focus on economic, financial issues.

  • Countries which are members include Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar so South and South East Asian countries.

  • Permanent secretariat in Dhaka.

  • The meetings of BIMSTEC are held irregularly and the next summit shall be in Katmandu, Nepal.

  • Advantages of BIMSTEC for India :-

    1. Kolkata Port - Sittwe Port [Burma] and River Kaladan - Mizoram Project. This project connects Indian ports with North East Indian region through an alternative route through sea. This shall improve trade, connectivity to the region. The land route is through a narrow stretch of 20 km land that connects North East and the Rest of India.

    2. Kolkata Port - Sittwe Port [Burma] and River Kaladan - Mizoram Project

    3. India Myanmar Thailand highway shall be constructed and shall boost trade between the regions.

    4. India Myanmar Thailand highway

    5. Chennai Dawei Bangkok sea land corridor to boost trade as a part of India's Look East Policy.

    6. Chennai Dawei Bangkok sea land corridor

    Informal association of countries to help each other identify exports that need to be controlled so as to not contribute to spread of bio chemical weapons.

    Transparency in transfer of conventional arms and dual use goods and technology. It is not legally binding.

    Members are the 10 ASEAN nations and their Dialogue partners like India, US, Russia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan and China.

    The Priorities are energy, economy, education, disaster management and health and connectivity.

    The projects being considered by this body are

    1. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership: Binds ASEAN and 6 regional partners into a framework for economic integration

    2. Asia wide FTA.

    3. Nalanda University Project was approved by East Asian Summit.

    Head quarters is in Paris.

    The main bodies are:

    1. General Conference: Members are all states and this body meets every two years. Vote on policies, programs and budget. It also elects executive board and Director General every 4 years.

    2. Executive Board - 58 members are present and it handles overall management of UNESCO.

    3. Director General and Secretariat - Staff is drawn from civil service of member states.


    1. International collaboration through education, science, culture.

    2. Promote values of UN charter, peace, eradicate poverty and sustainable development.


    1. Education - For all

    2. Natural science - Promote curiosity

    3. Social, human science - Solve challenges

    4. Culture - foster diversity

    5. Communication, information - promote inclusion

    1. The heads of government of these three countries met in Brazilia in 2006 and agreed to collaborate and work together to promote good governance.

    2. It has since held seven meetings and adopted the areas of cooperation as

      1. integrated monitoring and evaluation

      2. e-governance,

      3. human resource development

      4. citizen oriented service delivery

      5. anti-corruption and ethics

      6. accountability and transparency.

    World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the main UN agencies collaborating, in the Health Sector, with the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India and providing technical support.

    Activities under WHO are funded through two sources:-

    1. Donations from various sources for general or specific aspects of health

    2. Funds donated by member countries

    3. India is the largest beneficiary of the country budget within the South East Asia Region.

    • UN organization dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women.

    • UN Women supports UN Member States as they set global standards for achieving gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes and services needed to ensure that the standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit women and girls worldwide.

    • It has five priority areas:

      • increasing women’s leadership and participation;

      • ending violence against women;

      • engaging women in all aspects of peace and security processes;

      • enhancing women’s economic empowerment;

      • making gender equality central to national development planning and budgeting.

    • In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly created UN Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, to address such challenges.