United Nation Organization has its head quarters in New York city, USA. It was established on 24th October 1945 and this day is celebrated as the "UN day". UN Official languages are English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Spanish. However the working languages are English and French.
It was established in 1964. HQ - Geneva. It meets once every 4 years to discuss matters of trade. It carries out policy oriented work on information economy. Publishes a report on ICT diffusion and raises awareness to narrow digital divide.
Vienna based body specializes in commercial law reform. It works to ensure that all states pass their own laws to ensure legal protection to e-documents. It has 60 members with 6 year term and elected by the UN General assembly.
It has 185 members. It won the 1969 Nobel prize for Peace. Its HQ - Geneva and it was established in 1919. The governance structure of International Labor Organization has representation from Government, Employers and Workers in the ratio of 2:1:1.
It has 195 members and was established in 1945. It is a specialized agency of the UN.
This is another specialized agency of the UN. It was established in 1946 with HQ at NewYork. It won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1965. It works to provide assistance to children.
It is established in 1965 with HQ at NewYork. It publishes Human Development Report.
It was established in 1972 with HQ at Nairobi, Kenya. The UN General Assembly elects the UNEP Governing council. The Two main programs of the UNEP are publication of the "Global Environment Outlook" report on Environment and the "Earthwatch" program which is used to keep a constant watch on Environment.
It was established in 1945 and is one of the five principal organs of the UN.
It is the only principal organ with headquarters outside NewYork city. HQ of ICJ is in Hague, Holland.
The Judgment of the ICJ is final and no appeals are allowed. However as the implementation of the judgment is with the UNSC, the members can block it.
There are 15 judges of the ICJ elected by the UNGA and approved by the UNSC. Their term is 9 years. The court languages are English and French.
The ICJ does not prosecute individuals but only settles disputes between nations.
Founded in 1967 with HQ in Brussels. Its motto is "Unity in Diversity". It was founded by France, Luxemburg, Belgium, Holland,West Germany. It won the 2012 Peace Nobel.
21 Pacific rim nations are members of APEC. The main aim is to promote free trade and economic cooperation. HQ - Singapore.
10 members of South East Asia. It was established in 1967 to accelerate economic growth, social progress. HQ - Jakarta, Indonesia. It was established by Bangkok declaration. India is a dialogue partner of ASEAN.
ASEAN Regional Forum
Working of ASEAN Regional Forum
Tracks of ASEAN Regional Forum
Process of ASEAN Regional Forum
VISION 2020 - ASEAN Regional Forum
Strengthening ARF's role in raising awareness on security challenges and intensifying Confidence building measures.
HANOI PLAN OF ACTION -- ASEAN Regional Forum
To implement Vision 2020 by taking practical action in the fields of
Adopted on 10 December 1948 by the UNO. Hence 10 December is celebrated as "Human Rights Day".
"Dignity and Justice for All of Us" - Motto
It was setup in 1998 by the Rome Accord and has 120 signatories.
Function is to prosecute individuals accused of war crimes or genocide. The jurisdiction of ICC is only on the signatory nations. It doesn;t have a separate police force and relies on police of member nations. It also is referred cases by the UNSC. Maximum penalty it can give is only life sentences upto 30 years. It is not a part of UN and has jurisdiction on cases committed after 2002.
US, India, Pakistan are non signatories.
HQ - Hague, Netherlands.
One of the Six principal organs of the United Nations.
It has 54 seats and region specific quotas.
The General assembly elects members for 3 year term.
All decisions are taken by a simple majority and presidency changes annually.
The main functions of ECOSOC are:
HQ - Mauritius, Working language - English. It is a intergovernmental body with 21 members who are countries bordering the Indian ocean.
India is one of the founding members of the IORA. The organization was officially launched in 1997.
It aims to promote closer cooperation between government, business and academia.
The objectives of IORA are as follows:
Problems of the IORA - Jakarta summit, 2017
There have been criticisms of the IORA as an agency that does little but offers words. The success of this organization depends on the work of the powerful nations of the Indian Ocean Region like India, Australia and Indonesia. These have already worked to bring the organization ahead. Until a few years back this agency had little importance for the members.
Indonesia has organized the first summit of the group this year. “Jakarta accord” shall be released and hopefully it shall have a pathway for peace and prosperity in the region.
The IOR has seen increasing interference of China as a growing power. The policy makers of China have used their resources to build economic and military partnerships in this region. The Silk route and investments in building a port in Sri Lanka are examples of this. India’s inward looking policies have been a handicap to its integration with the regional economies of IOR. The situation must change to overcome the imbalance caused by China’s entry.
Setup in 2009 with Brazil, russia, India and China. Later South Africa also joined in 2010.
The first meeting was held in Russia. The countries meet annually.
The BRICS group covers 40% of World's population and 20% of World's GDP.
New Development Bank
Created on 2014 during the B.R.I.C.S. summit in Brazil.
The HQ - Shanghai.
All 5 B.R.I.C.S. members shall have equal voting powers and the aim is to overcome balance of payments crisis and provide loans for sustainable development and infrastructure.
$50 billion is the starting capital and $100 billion is the authorized capital and $100 billion is the contingency capital.
Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and USA are members.
China came up with the idea to lend money for infrastructure and development projects specifically for Asian countries by setting up a multi lateral development bank.
Asia needs $800 billion for infrastructure investments.
Asian development bank cannot lend more than $10 billion and the IMF and World Bank cannot cater exclusively to the Asian continent.
China has many motives behind the setting up of this bank. It has huge forex reserves and AIIB has authorized capital of $100 billion out of which China shall pay 50% and this shall be used for lending activities and China can earn revenue on this.
China's Belt Road initiative of building a trade route through Indian ocean and land route towards European markets could get a boost through this.
The IMF, World bank and the Asian Development Bank are controlled by Europe, USA and Japan respectively and their governance structure isn't reforming. This means that China even though has a economy comparable to USA but can't have much say in the decisions taken in these bodies.
To reduce the hegemony of these bodies, a new multilateral agency might help as it might force the other financial institutions to reform themselves.
Countries represented by their Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors. The Chair rotates annually and there is no permanent secretariat or staff.
G20 Agenda is Two tracks:-
Advantages of BIMSTEC for India :-
Informal association of countries to help each other identify exports that need to be controlled so as to not contribute to spread of bio chemical weapons.
Transparency in transfer of conventional arms and dual use goods and technology. It is not legally binding.
Members are the 10 ASEAN nations and their Dialogue partners like India, US, Russia, New Zealand, South Korea, Japan and China.
The Priorities are energy, economy, education, disaster management and health and connectivity.
The projects being considered by this body are
Head quarters is in Paris.
The main bodies are:
World Health Organization (WHO) is one of the main UN agencies collaborating, in the Health Sector, with the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India and providing technical support.
Activities under WHO are funded through two sources:-
UN organization dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women.
UN Women supports UN Member States as they set global standards for achieving gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes and services needed to ensure that the standards are effectively implemented and truly benefit women and girls worldwide.
It has five priority areas:
increasing women’s leadership and participation;
ending violence against women;
engaging women in all aspects of peace and security processes;
enhancing women’s economic empowerment;
making gender equality central to national development planning and budgeting.
In July 2010, the United Nations General Assembly created UN Women, the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, to address such challenges.