Chapter 1: CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
The very fact that the Constitution of the Indian Republic is the product not of a political revolution but of the research and deliberations of a body of eminent representatives of the people who sought to improve
upon the existing system of administration, makes a
retrospect of the constitutional development indispensable for a proper
understanding of this Constitution.
Practically the only respect in which the Constitution of 1949 differs
from the constitutional documents of the preceding two centuries is that
while the latter had been imposed by an imperial power, the Republican
Constitution was made by the people themselves, through representatives
assembled in a sovereign Constituent Assembly. That explains the majesty
and ethical value of this new instrument and also the significance of those of
its provisions which have been engrafted upon the pre-existing system.
Making of the Constitution 1773 - 1947
Events that influenced our constitution and polity during the
east India Company rule:
Regulating Act, 1773:
The controller of East India company was the court of
proprietors and court of directors.
The three presidencies of Bombay, Bengal, Madras were
independent and managed by governor and his council.
The court of directors were elected annually and managed the
affairs of the company. The mismanagement of Indian
territories led to bankruptcy of the company and the
directors asked for a loan. The government passed this act
as a precondition for the loan.
It laid the foundations for a centralized administration in
India. Governor of Bengal became the Governor General of
Bengal with an executive council of four to assist him.
Decisions would be taken by majority and Governor General
could only vote in case of tie. Presidencies of Madras and
Bombay lost their independence and became subordinate to
It established a Supreme Court of Justice at Calcutta. It
prohibited the servants of E.I.C from accepting gifts and
engaging in private trade.
Pitts Act, 1784:
Board of control was established to control political
affairs in India. So a system of dual government was
created. The number of members in the governors council were
reduced to 3.
The board of control were responsible to the parliament and
controlled political affairs. The court of directors were in
control of commercial affairs.
Charter Act, 1813: Reduced monopoly of E.I.C to trade with
India. But kept monopoly for trade with china.
Charter Act, 1833: Ended all monopolies of E.I.C with respect
to trade. Governor General of Bengal became the Governor
General of India.
Charter Act, 1853: Created a Central legislative council for
legislative functions. It had provincial representation
for the first time. Open competitive exams were held for
recruitment to the civil service.
Government of India Act, 1858:
British Crown assumed sovereignty over India from the East India Company, and Parliament enacted the first statute for the governance of India under the direct rule of the British Government - the Government of India Act, 1858 .
This Act was dominated by the principle of absolute imperial
control without any popular participation in the administration of the
country, while the subsequent history up to the making of the Constitution is
one of gradual relaxation of imperial control and the evolution of
By this Act, the powers of the Crown were to be
exercised by the Secretary of State for India, assisted by a Council of fifteen
members (known as the Council of India).
The Council was composed
exclusively of people from England, some of whom were nominees of the
Crown while others were the representatives of the Directors of the East
The Secretary of State, who was responsible to the British
Parliament, governed India through the Governor-General, assisted by an
Executive Council, which consisted of high officials of the Government
The essential features of the system introduced by the Act of 1858 :
The administration of the country was not only unitary but rigidly
centralised. Though the territory was divided into Provinces with a
Governor or Lieutenant-Governor aided by his Executive Council at the head of each of them, the Provincial Governments were mere agents of the
Government of India and had to function under the superintendence,
direction and control of the Governor-General in all matters relating to the
government of the Provtnce.
There was no separation of functions, and all the authority for the
governance of India - civil and military, executive and legislative, was
vested in the Governor-General in Council who was responsible to the
Secretary of State.
The control of the Secretary of State over the Indian administration
was absolute. The Act vested in him the 'superintendence, direction and
control of all areass, operations and concerns which in any way related to the
Government or revenues of India'. Subject to his ultimate responsibility to
the British Parliament, he wielded the Indian administration through the
Governor-General as his agent and his was the last word, whether in matters
of Policy or of details.
The entire machinery of administration was bureaucratic, totally
unconcerned about public opinion in India.
Governor General of India became the viceroy
of India. The board of control and court of directors,
proprietors were abolished and a new office of Secretary
of State for India and his Indian council were created.
They had supreme power to regulate all affairs.
Indian Council Act, 1861:
The Indian Councils Act of 1861 introduced a grain of popular
element insofar as it provided that the Governor-General's Executive Council, which was so long composed exclusively of officials, should include certain additional non-official members, while transacting legislative business as a
But this Legislative Council was neither representative
nor deliberative in any sense. The members were nominated and their
functions were confined exclusively to a consideration of the legislative
proposals placed before it by the Governor-General.
It could not, in any
manner, criticise the acts of Lhe administration or Lhe conduct of the
Even in legislation, effective powers were reserved to the
Governor-General, such as-(a) giving prior sanction to Bills relating to
certain matters, without which they could not be introduced in the
Legislative Council; (b) vetoing the Bills after they were passed or reserving
them for consideration of the Crown;
Similar provisions were made by the Act of 1861 for Legislative
Councils in the Provinces. But even for initiating legislation in these
Provincial Councils with respect to many matters, the prior sanction of the
Governor-General was necessary.
Allowed nomination of Indians to the central
Started a portfolio system for convenient
transaction of business.
Viceroy could issue ordinances without
consulting the legislative council [lifetime of ordinances
= 6 months].
Process of decentralization of legislative
powers to the provinces began.
Indian Council Act, 1892:
though the Councils majority of official members were retained, the nonofficial members of the Indian Legislative Council
were henceforth to be nominated by the Bengal Chamber of Commerce and
the Provincial Legislative Councils, while the non-official members of the
Provincial Councils were to be nominated by certain local bodies such as
universities, district boards, municipalities;
The Councils were to have the
power of discussing the annual statement of revenue and expenditure. i.e.,
the Budget and of addressing questions to the Executive.
This Act is notable for its object. which was explained by the UnderSecretary
of State for India thus:
"to widen the basis and expand the functions of the Government of India, and to
give further opportunities to the non official and native, elements in indian society to
take part in the work of the Government".
Increased number of non-official members to
the central and provincial legislative assemblies.
Official majority was retained, however more powers were
granted to members. Limited franchise was introduced in India.
Indian Council Act, 1909 [Morley – Minto
The first attempt at introducing a representative and popular element was made by the Morley-Minto Reforms, known by the names of the then Secretary of State for India (Lord Morley) and the Viceroy (Lord Minto), which were implemented by the Indian Councils Act, 1909.
An element of election was also introduced in the Legislative Council at the
Centre but the official majority there was maintained.
The deliberative functions of the Legislative Councils were also
increased by this Act by giving them the opportunity of influencing the
policy of the administration by moving resolutions on the Budget and on
any matter of public interest, save certain specified subjects, such as the
Armed Forces, Foreign Affairs and the Indian States.
It can hardly be overlooked that the idea of separate electorates for the
Muslims was synchronous with the formation of the Muslim League as a
Subsequent to this, the Government of India Act, 1915 was passed merely to consolidate all the preceding Government of
India Acts so that the existing provisions relating to the government of India
in Its executive, legislative and judicial branches could be had from one
Allowed non-official majority in the
provinces but not in the central legislative council. It
increased number of members in the legislative councils.
Allowed for a system of separate electorate [communal
representation] for Muslims. Indians were for the first
time appointed to the Central Executive council.
Government of India Act, 1919:
The Morley-Minto Reforms failed to satisfy the aspirations of the
nationalists in India , the Reforms did not aim at
the establishment of a Parliamentary system of government in the country
and provide for the retention of the final decision on all questions in the
hands of the irresponsible Executive.
The Indian National Congress which, established In 1885, was so long
under the control of Moderates, became more active during the First WorId
Wur and started its campaign for self-government (known as the 'Home
Rule' movement). In response to this popular demand, the British Government made a declaration on August 20, 1917, that the policy of His Majesty's Government was that of =
"Increasing association of Indians In every branch of the administration and the
gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to progressive
realisation of responsible government In British India as an Integral part of the
The then Secretary of State for India (Mr. E.S. Montagu) and the
Governor-General (Lord CHELMSFORD), entrusted with the task of
formulating proposals for carrying out the above poUcy and the Government
of India Act, 1919, gave a legal shape to their recommendations.
Dyarchy in the Provinces : Responsible government in the Provinces
was sought to be Introduced, without impairing the responsibility of the
Governor (through the Governor-General), for the administration of the
Province, by resorting to device known as 'Dyarchy' or dual government.
Relaxation of Central control over the Provinces : As stated already, the
Rules made under the Government of India Act, 1919, known as the Devolution
Rules, made a separation of the subjects of administration into two
categories - Central and Provincial. Subjects of all-India
importance were brought under the category 'Central', while matters
primarily relating to the administration of the provinces were classified as
'Provincial'. This meant a relaxation of the previous Central control over the
provinces not only in administrative but also in legislative and financial
matters. Even the sources of revenue were divided into two categories so
that the Provinces could run the administration with the aid of revenue
raised by the Provinces themselves and for this purpose, the provincial
budgets were separated from the Government of India and the Provincial
Legislature was empowered to present its own budget and levy its taxes
relating to the provincial sources of revenue.
At the same time, this devolution of power to the Provinces should not
be mistaken for a federal distribution of powers. Under the Act of 1919, the Provinces got power by way of delegation from the Centre. The Central
Legislature, therefore, retained power to legislate for the whole of India,
relating to any subject, and it was subject to such paramount power of the
Central Legislature that the Provincial Legislature got the power "to make
Laws for the peace and good government of the territories for the time being
constituting that province".
The control of the Governor-General over Provincial legislation was
also retained by a laying down that a Provincial Bill, even though assented
to by the Governor, would not become Law unless assented to also by the
Governor-General, and by empowering the Governor to reserve a Bill (or
the consideration of the Governor-General if it related to matters specified in
this behalf by the Rules made under the Act.
The Indian Legislature made more representative : No responsibility
was, however, introduced at the Centre and the Governor-General In
Council continued to remain responsible only to the British Parliament
through the Secretary of Stale for India.
Nevertheless, the Indian legislature
was made more representative and for the first time, bi-cameral. It was to
consist of an Upper House, named the Council of State, composed of 60
members of whom 34 were elected, and a Lower House, named the
Legislative Assembly, composed of about 144 members of whom 104 were
The powers of both the Houses were equal except that the power to
vote supply was given exclusively to the Legislative Assembly. The
electorates were, however, arranged on a communal and sectional basis,
developing the Morley-Minto device further.
The Governor-General's overriding powers in respect of Central legislation were retained in the following forms
his prior sanction was required
to introduce Bills relating to certain matters;
he had the power to veto or
reserve for consideration of the Crown any Bill passed by the Indian legislature;
he had the converse power of certifying any Bill or any grant
refused to be passed or made by the Legislature, in which case it would
have the same effect as if it was passed or made by the Legislature;
could make Ordinances, having the force of Law for a temporary period, in
case of emergency.
The Reforms of 1919, however, failed to fulfil the aspiration of the people in India
Notwithstanding a substantial measure of devolution of power to the
Provinces the structure still remained unitary and centralised "with the
Governor-General In Council as the keystone of the whole constitutional
edifice; and it is through the Governor-General in Council that the Secretary
of State and, ultimately, Parliament discharged their responsibilities for the
peace, order and good government of India". It was the Governor-General
and not the Courts who had the authority to decide whether a particular
subject was Central or Provincial. The Provincial Legislature could not, without the previous sanction of the Governor-General, take up for consideration any bill relating to a number of subjects.
The greatest dissatisfaction came from the working of Dyarchy in
the Provincial sphere. In a large measure, the Governor came to dominate
ministerial policy by means of his overriding financial powers and control
over the official block in the Legislature.
In practice, scarcely any question of
importance could arise Without affecting one or more of the reserved
departments. The impracticability of a division of the administration into two
water-tight compartments was manifested beyond doubt.
The main defect of
the system from the Indian standpoint was the control of the purse. Finance
being a reserved subject, was placed in charge of a member of the Executive
council and not a Minister.
It was impossible for any Minister to implement
any progressive measure for want of funds and together with this was the
further fact that the members of the Indian Civil Service, through whom the
Ministers were to implement their policies, were recruited by the Secretary
of State and were responsible to him and not to the Ministers.
Above all was
the overriding power of the Governor who did not act as a constitutional
head even with respect to the transferred subjects, There was no provision
for collective responsibility of the Ministers to the Provincial Legislature.
Ministers were appointed individually, acted as advisers of the Governor,
and differed from members of the Executive Council only in the fact that
they were non-officials. The Governor had the discretion to act otherwise
than in accordance with the advice of his Ministers; he could certify a grant
refused by the Legislature or a Bill rejected by it if it was regarded by him as
essential for the due discharge of his responsibilities relating to a reserved
It is no wonder, therefore, that the introduction of ministerial
government over a part of the Provincial sphere proved ineffective and
failed to satisfy Indian aspirations.
Subjects on which legislation can be made
were divided into central and provincial. Provincial were
further divided into reserved and transferred. The
reserved subjects were administered by Governors of
provinces and their executive councils. Transferred
subjects were to be administered with the help of
ministers responsible to the provincial legislative
The central legislative council was replaced
by a bicameral legislature. Majority of members of both
houses were non-official and chosen by direct elections.
Central executive council to have 3 Indian
members out of six.
Made provision for a public service
commission. Granted a limited franchise based on education
and property. Created a statutory body to inquire into and
report on the working of the act in 10 years of its coming
Simon Commission 
The persistent demand for further reforms, attended with the dislocation caused by the Non-cooperation movement, led the British Government In 1927 to appoint a Statutory Commission, as envisaged by the
Government of India Act, 1919 itself, to inquire into and report on
the working of the Act and in 1929 to announce that Dominion Status was
the goal of Indian political developments. The Commission, headed by Sir
John Simon, reported in 1930.
The Report was considered by a Round Table Conference consisting
of the delegates of the British Government and of British India as well as of
the Rulers of the Indian States (in as much as the scheme was to unite the
Indian States with the rest of India under a federal scheme).
It was established to review the working of
the Act. All members were British and so the commission
was boycotted by majority of the political parties. The
recommendations were continuation of communal
representation, abolition of diarchy, extension of
responsible government in provinces, creation of Indian
federation of British India and princely states.
Three round table conferences were conducted
by British government with representatives of British
India, princely states and British government. A white
paper on this was presented to the British parliament and
the suggestions were incorporated into Government of India
Communal award, 1932:
British PM Ramsay McDonald extended the
separate electorate to Scheduled classes. This was
protested by Gandhi who went on fast unto death. Finally,
BR Ambedkar and Gandhiji signed the Poona Pact by which
separate electorates were removed and reservations were
given to dalits.
Government of India Act, 1935:
The Act of 1935,
it should be noted, provided separate representation not only for the
Muslims, but also for the Sikhs, the Europeans, Indian Christians and Anglo Indians
and thus created a serious hurdle in the way of the building up of
national unity, which the makers of the future Constitution found it almost
insunnountable to overcome even after the Muslims had partitioned for a
Federation and Provincial Autonomy : While under all the previous Government of India Acts, the government of India was unitary the Act of 1935 prescribed a federation taking the Provinces and Indian states as units.
But it was optional for the Indian States to join the Federation; and since the Rulers of the Indian States
never gave their consent, the Federation envisaged by
the Act of 1935 never came into being.
But though the Part relating to the Federation never took effect, the
Part relating to Provincial Autonomy was given effect to since April, 1937.
The Act divided legislative powers between the Provincial and Central
Legislatures, and within its defined sphere; the Provinces were no longer
delegates of the Central Government, but were autonomous units of
administration. To this extent, the Government of India assumed the role of
a federal government vis-a-vis the Provincial Government, though the Indian
States did not come into the fold to complete the scheme of federation.
The executive authority of a Province was also exercised by a
Governor on behalf of the Crown and not as a subordinate of the GovernorGeneral
The Governor was required to act with the advice of Ministers
responsible to the Legislature.
But notwithstanding the introduction of Provincial Autonomy, the Act
of 1935 retained control of the Central Government over the Provinces in a
certain sphere-by requiring the Governor to act 'in his discretion' or in the
exercise of his 'individual Judgment' in certain matters. In such matters, the
Governor was to act without ministerial advice and under the control and
directions of the Governor-General, and, through him, of the Secretary of
Dyarchy at the Centre : The executive authority of the Centre was
vested in the Governor-General (on behalf of the Crown), whose functions
were divided into two groups :-
The administration of defence, external affairs, ecclesiastical affairs,
and of tribal areas, was to be made by the Governor-General in his
discretion with the help of 'counsellors', appointed by him, who were not responsible to the Legislature.
With regard to matters other than the
above reserved subjects, the Governor-General was to act on the advice of a
'Council of Ministers' who were responsible to the Legislature. But even in
regard to this latter sphere, the Governor-General might act contrary to the
advice so tendered by the ministers if any of his 'special responsibilities' was
involved. As regards the special responsibilities, the Governor-General was
to act under the control and directions of the Secretary of State.
But, in fact, neither any 'Counsellors' nor any Council of Ministers
responsible to the Legislature came to be appointed under the Act of 1935;
the old Executive Council provided by the Act of 1919 continued to advise the
Governor-General until the Indian Independence Act, 1947.
The Legislature : The Central Legislature was bi-cameral, consisting
of the Federal Assembly and the Council of State. In six of the Provinces, the Legislature was bi-cameral, comprising a
Legislative Assembly and a Legislative Council. In the rest of the Provinces,
the Legislature was uni-cameral.
The legislative powers of both the Central and Provincial Legislatures
were subject to various limitations and neither could be said to have
possessed the features of a sovereign Legislature. Thus, the Central
Legislature was subject to the following limitations :
Apart from the Governor-General's power of veto, a Bill passed by
the Central Legislature was also subject to veto by the Crown.
The Governor-General might prevent discussion in the Legislature
and suspend the proceedings in regard to any Bill if he was satisfied that it
would affect the discharge of his special responsibilities.
Apart from the power to promulgate Ordinances during the recess
of the Legislature, the Governor-General had independent powers of
legislation, concurrently with those of the Legislature. Thus, he had the
power to make temporary Ordinances as well as permanent Acts at any time
for the discharge of his special responsibilities.
No bill or amendment could be introduced in the Legislature
without the Governor-General's previous sanction, with respect to certain
matters, e.g., if the Bill or amendment sought to repeal or amend or was
repugnant to any law of the British Parliament extending to India or any
Governor-General's or Governor's Act, or if it sought to affect matters as
respects which the Governor-General was required to act in his discretion.
There were similar fetters on the Provinclal Legislature.
The Instruments of Instructions issued under the Act further required
that Bills relating to a number of subjects, such as those derogating from the
powers of a High Court or afIecting the Permanent Settlement, when
presented to the Governor-General or a Governor for his assent, were to be
reserved for the consideration of the Crown or the Governor-General, as me
case might be.
Distribution of legislative powers between the Centre and the Provinces
Though the Indian States did not join the Federation, the federal provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935, were in fact applied as between the Central Government and the Provinces
The division of legislative powers, between the Centre and the
Provinces is of special interest as the
division made in the Constitution between the Union and the States
proceeds largely on the same lines.
It was not a mere delegation of power by
the Centre to the Provinces as by Rules made under the Government of
India Act, 1919. As already pointed out, the Government of India Act of
1935 itself divided the legislative powers between the Central and Provincial
Legislatures and, subject to the provisions mentioned below, neither
Legislature could transgress the powers assigned to the other.
A three-fold division was made in the Act-
There was a Federal List over which the Federal Legislature had
exclusive powers of legislation. This List included matters such as External
affairs; Currency and coinage; Naval, military and air forces; census,
There was a Provincial List of matters over which the Provincial Legislature
had exclusive jurisdiction, e.g., Police, Provincial Public Service, Education.
There was a Concurrent List of matters over which both the Federal and
Provtnctal Legislature had competence, e.g., Criminal law and procedure,
Civil procedure, Marriage and divorce, Arbitration.
The Federal Legislature had the power to legislate with respect to
matters enumerated in the Provincial List if a Proclamation of Emergency
was made by the Governor-General. The Federal Legislature could also
legislate with respect to a Provincial subject if the Legislatures of two or
more Provinces desired this in their common Interest.
In case of repugnancy in the Concurrent field, a Federal law prevailed
over a Provincial law to the extent of the repugnancy, but if the Provincial
law having been reserved for the consideration of the Governor-General
received his assent, the Provincial law prevailed, notwithstanding such
The allocation of residuary power of legislation in the Act was unique.
It was not vested in either the Central or the Provincial Legislature but the
Governor-General was empowered to authorise either the Federal or the
Provincial Legislature to enact a law with respect to any matter which was
not enumerated in the Legislative Lists.
It is to be noted that 'Dominion Status', which was promised by the
Simon Commission in 1929, was not conferred by the Government of India
Provision of a Reserve bank, provincial
public service commission and Joint public service commission.
Establishment of a federal court. Extended franchise to
Indians, separate representation to dalits. Replaced
Indian council with an advisory team to the secretary of
In pursuance of the Indian Independence Act, the Government of
India Act, 1935, was amended by the Adaptation Orders, both in India and
Pakistan, in order to provide an interim Constitution to each of the two
Dominions until the Constituent Assembly could draw up the future
The following were the main results of such adaptations:-
Abolition of the Sovereignty and Responsibility of the British Parliament :
As has been already explained, by the Government of India Act, 1858,
the Government of India was transferred from the East India Company to
the Crown. By this Act, the British Parliament became the direct guardian of
India, and the office of the Secretary of State for India was created for the
administration of Indian affairs for which the Secretary of State was to be
responsible to Parliament, Notwithstanding gradual relaxation of the control,
the Governor-General of India and the Provincial Governors remained
substantially under the direct control of the Secretary of State until the
Indian Independence Act, 1947.
The Indian Independence Act altered this constitutional postuon, root
and branch. It declared that with effect from the 15th August, 1947 (referred
to as the 'appointed day), India ceased to be a Dependency and the
suzerainty of the British Crown over the Indian States and the treaty
relations with Tribal Areas also lapsed from the date.
The responsibility of the British Government and Parliament for
administration of India having ceased, the office of the Secretary of State for
India was abolished.
The Crown no longer the source of authority : So long as India
remained a Dependency of the British Crown, the Government of India was
carried on in the name of His Majesty.
Under the Act of 1935, the Crown
came into further prominence owing to the scheme of the Act being federal,
and all the units of the federation including the Provinces, drew their
authority direct from the Crown. But under the Independence Act, 1947,
neither of the two Dominions of India and Pakistan derived its authority
from the British Isles.
The Governor-General and Provincial Governor : to act as constitutional
heads. The Governors-General of the two Dominions became the
constitutional heads of the two new Dominions as in the case of the other
Dominions. This was, in fact, a necessary corollary from 'Dominion Status'
which had been denied to India by the Government of India Act, 1935, but
conceded by the Indian Independence Act, 1947.
According to the adaptations under the Independence Act, there was
no longer any Executive Council as under the Act of 1919 or 'counsellors' as
envisaged by the Act of 1935.
The Governor-General or the Provincial
Governor was to act on the advice of a Council of Ministers having the
confidence of the Dominion Legislature or the Provincial Legislature, as the
case might be. The words "in his discretion", "acting in his discretion" and
"individual judgement" were effaced from the Government of India Act, 1935, wherever they occurred, with the result that there was now no sphere
10which these constitutional heads could act without or against the wishes of
Similarly, the powers of the Governor-General to require
Governors to discharge certain functions as his agents were deleted from the
The Governor-General and the Governors lost extraordinary powers of
legislation so as to compete with the Legislature, by passing Acts, Proclama-
tions and Ordinances for ordinary legislative purposes, and also the power
The Governor's power to suspend the Provincial Constitution
was taken away. The Crown also lost its right of veto and so the
Governor-General could not reserve any bill for the signification of Her
Sovereignty of the Dominion Legislature : The Central Legislature of
India, composed of the Legislative Assembly and the Council of States,
ceased to exist on August 14, 1947. From the 'appointed day' and until the
Constituent Assemblies of the two Dominions were able to frame their new
Constitutions and new Legislatures were constituted there under, It was the
Constituent Assembly itself, which was to function also as the Central
Legislature of the Dominion to which it belonged.
In other words, the
Constituent Assembly of either Dominion (until it itself desired otherwise),
was to have a dual function, constituent as well as legislative.
The sovereignty of the Dominion Legislature was complete and no
sanction of the Governor-General would henceforth be required to legislate
on any matter, and there was to be no repugnancy by reason of
contravention of any British Imperial law.
Independence Act, 1947:
Ended British rule in India on 15 august
viceroy, secretary of state offices. British emperor would
no longer be emperor of India. Provision for partition of
India into India and Pakistan. Princely states given
choice to accede or remain independent. Constituent
assemblies to frame constitution for their dominion. GoI
Act, 1935 would be enforced till new constitution was
ready. Governor General of Centre and provinces would be
nominal heads and act on aid and advice of Ministers.
Constituent assembly could enact, repeal,
and amend any law. Thus it was made a legislative body
too. When it worked a legislative body it was chaired by
GV Malwankar till 1949.
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