Chapter 14: FEDERAL SYSTEM
Indian system is federal with
unitary bias i.e. it provides for regional autonomy but at
the same time the centre
is more powerful than the states. Also the states can’t
cede from the union.
The constitution also doesn’t mention federation anywhere.
This is since a
federation is formed by agreement between the units which
isn’t the case in India.
Canadian model of federation is used in India.
Federal features of the constitution
Federal features of the
constitution are dual government, written constitution,
judiciary, division of powers, bicameralism and rigid
Unitary features of the constitution
Unitary features are unequal
representation to the states at the centre, integrated
citizenship, appointment of governors, all India services,
veto over state
bills, preference of union and concurrent list over state
audit and election machinery, indestructible centre and
emergency powers and constitutional provisions of allowing
centre to give
directions to states.
Federalism is a compromise
between normal divisions of powers under which states
enjoy autonomy within
their own spheres and the need for a strong union under
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