Public Acts and Records

Public acts, records and judicial proceedings of states and centre have full faith and credit throughout the territory of India.

Final judgments of civil courts only [not criminal courts] are capable of execution in any part of India.

Interstate trade and commerce

Interstate trade, commerce and intercourse shall remain free throughout the country.

The article also covers intra state trade and commerce. Hence no barriers on trade can be imposed at state boundaries or within. This has been done to created a unified market and provide free flow of trade.

However under public interest parliament can restrict the freedom of trade within a state or between states but it can’t discriminate between states. 

State legislatures can impose restrictions on freedom of trade but such a law can be introduced in the house only after president’s approval.

States can impose taxes on goods of other states only if same taxes are applicable to goods produced within it.

Parliament can pass a law giving a state or itself monopoly for a particular business activity i.e. nationalization.

Parliament can appoint an authority for carrying out above purpose of carrying out provisions related to freedom of trade and commerce and putting restrictions on it. It can also confer suitable powers on such a body. However such a body hasn’t been formed yet.

Zonal Councils

These are statutory bodies formed by the State Reorganization Act, 1956 for five zones north, south, east, west and central. A separate act created north eastern zonal council.

The home minister is chairman + vice chairman is chief minister of states in the zones by rotation of 1 year + 2 ministers of each state + administrators of UT’s.

Other advisory members with no voting powers are development commissioners of states, representative of planning commission and chief secretary of state. These are advisory bodies with non binding recommendations.


Functions of the Zonal Councils:

  1.  Secure political equilibrium in the country.
  2. Arrest after effects of the separation of states on linguistic basis.
  3. Centre state coordination for socioeconomic matters. Exchange of ideas and experience to formulate uniform policies.
  4. Achieve emotional integration in the country
  5. Prevent growth of regionalism and linguism.


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