Chapter 18: BEHAVIORAL MOVEMENT
Follet's work was the link between classical theory that
focused on organization to behavioral theory that studied the
human being with a focus on his values and rationality in
working of an organization. Human relations approach which
came next focused on relationship between people working in an
Features of Behavioral Approach:
- Descriptive, analytical not prescriptive. It believed
behavior of individuals of an organization can be studies
to develop generalized statements.
- Focus on informal relations, communication patterns in
- Focus on motivation, leadership, decision making, power,
- Pays attention to individual, his relationship to
- Focus on both formal, informal organizations.
- Focus on means of communication as administration is
considered as aggregate of human relations.
- Focus on theory of legitimacy i.e. why people feel they
must obey orders.
Significance of behavioral style:
- Hypothesis were tested in cross cultural, cross national
context to check validity. Thus boosting comparative
- Highlighted inadequacies of classical theories.
- Scientific methodology was boosted.
- Proved administration can be influenced by human
sentiment, perception, environment.
- Shifted focus from structures to people. Focus on
communication and informal organizations too.
C.I.Bernard carried out experimental study to find out about
human behavior. He proposed the idea of a formal and informal
organization. Formal organization is created when 2/more
people are willing to cooperate, communicate with each other
for winning a goal.
Thus an organization has rules designed to anticipate and
shape behavior in direction of goals and has formal status,
structure with clearly marked lines of communication.
Thus elements of an organization are:
- Willingness to cooperate
- Common goal.
Those who have positive willingness are more than negative
willingness then only an organization remains. The
commitment of individual fluctuates causing unstable
conditions in organization.
Informal organization is a natural system. Its the
aggregate of personal contacts and interactions and
associate groupings of the people. Informal leads to formal.
both coexist together. Formal are vitalized by informal who
have functions like:
- Communication of intangible facts, opinions, suspicions
- Maintaining willingness to serve , self discipline
group, minimize excessive clicks of political influence.
- Maintenance of feeling of personal integrity, respect,
choice. It preserves personality of individuals against
certain effects of formal organization which tend to
Theory of Contribution - Satisfaction
Employee provides service to the organization and
organization provides incentives to the employee. The
organization survives as long as it has the capacity to
provide effective inducements. Thus he rejected economic
incentives only. Proportion of incentives depends on
situation, times and individuals.
||compatibility with associates
|non material viz distinction
||adaptation of working condition
|good work environment
||enlarged participation in course of events
|pride of workmanship
||condition for communicating with others
|ideal benefactions - sense of adequacy, patriotism,
aesthetic / religious feelings.
Theory of Acceptance of Authority
Authority is the character of communication in a formal
organization by virtue of which a member of organization
determines what he does or doesn't do as far as the
organization is concerned. Employee accepts orders if they
are in his zone of indifference. This zone has three levels:
Unacceptable, neutral, acceptable. The size of this zone
depends on the contribution - satisfaction equilibrium. He
will accept order if:
- He understands it
- Communication isn't consistent with organization purpose
- Communication is compatible with his personal interest
as a whole
- He is mentally able to comply with it.
Since communication plays an important role in maintaining
authority in an organization, he gave certain principles of
- infinite channels for communication.
- direct and short lines of communication
- everyone should have formal channel of communication
- communication centers should have competent people.
- authenticate all communication
- line of communication must not be interrupted
- Formal lines of communication must usually be used.
Functions of the Executive
- Establish , maintain systems of communication in
organization. Define organizational position and maintain
- Securing essential efforts and services from
subordinates by motivating them to exert themselves for
- Policy formulation.
- Theory doesn't state how it can be extended to different
types of organizations.
- Doesn't deal with organizations of top management.
- Doesn't deal with process of formulating goals or choice
of purpose in changing world.
- Definition of authority is only valid in capitalist
society not feudal or under-developed societies. Also
didn't deal with influence of socialization, family
structure or education process on authority.
- Doesn't deal with how individuals get committed to an
organization, how such commitment is strengthened or
creative development of an individual.
Chris Argyris' Immaturity - Maturity Theory
It is called Personality model i.e. 7 steps to convert
people from immature to mature. Organizations have to
provide environment for this to happen. An employee
initially is an immature one like a child who needs to be
guided , but an organization to be effective must turn him
from matured employee who is active, independent, self
- Infant passivity to adult activity
- Dependence towards relative independence
- Limited behavior towards many differentiated behavior.
- Erratic, shallow interest to deep interests.
- Short term to long term perspective.
- Subordinate social position to superordinate.
- lack of self awareness to self awareness.
Conflict between needs of mature person and
Formal organizations turn employees into passive, dependent
and short term oriented. This is because formal structures
have specialized units with supervisors. This leads to
employees in them having limited goals, interests.An
individual can put his full potential to work only when he
is assured of satisfaction once challenge is met. So
management must aim to develop his potential fully and
encourage open interpersonal communication. Management
should encourage sharing feelings as this shall reduce
Fusion process theory is needed i.e. individuals
and organizations both seek each other to achieve their
goals, this is simultaneous process.
Solutions to Remove conflicts:
- Matrix structure to organization rather than formal one.
In such structure superior subordinate relationship is
ignored and self disciplined individuals are seen.
- Participative and realistic leadership.
- Double loop style i.e. learn from others and influence
- Teams created around experience not power.
McGregor Theory X and Y
Assumption management holds about controlling its human
resources determines the whole character of the enterprise.
Management holds two different assumptions which are
Theory X --> Classical approach, work centered
Theory Y --> Behavioral approach i.e. people centered.
|Humans dislike work, people have to be coerced,
controlled, directed, threatened to put efforts.
||Average human doesn't dislike work but depending on
conditions work may be satisfactory or punishment
|Average human prefers to be directed , has no
ambition, avoids responsibility, wants security.
||if he is committed to goals man shall exercise self
control, self direction
|Central principle is control, direction, authority
||satisfaction of ego, self actualization is the main
motivation for work
|manager job becomes tough as he has to spend more
time on supervision giving him less time for planning,
||human learn to accept responsibility
|If management is hard then it leads to unionism,
sabotage, antagonism. But if management is soft it
abdicates itself to purchase harmony.
||create conditions that enable workers to achieve
their goals by directing efforts towards success in
- Subordinates can't participate in goal setting in X but
can in Y.
- Downward communication in X and bidirectional in Y.
- Leadership is autocratic in X and participative in Y.
- Supervision in X is close and general in Y.
- Control is external in X and internal in Y.
- Appraisal is fault finding in X and problem solving in
Rensis Likert's Theory on Managerial Styles
Application of managerial strategy for effective use of
human resources in an organization. This was mainly
concerned with managerial efficiency for achieving
Types of Managerial styles:
- Exploitative Authoritative: Rigid
hierarchy and dominant supervisors.
- Benevolent Authoritative: Superiors
take decisions but allow subordinates to give inputs.
Harsh penalty if failure.
- Consultative: Superiors take
subordinates inputs before decisions. Communication
bidirectional but rewards , motivations present.
- Participative Group: Subordinates take
guidance of superiors and take decisions at work.
Communication is bidirectional. This approach was most
successful due to participation of subordinates in
management of affairs.
Critics of behavioral approach:
- No adequate conceptual framework to explain organization
- Delinked organization from ecology and environment.
- Organization was delinked from political environment.
- Value free and neutral.
- General definition of organization not enough to make
working better or help in improving decision making.
- Idealistic view of human behavior is used by rationality