Chapter 22:DECISION MAKING
Introduction to Lindbloom's Incremental Model
He opined that what actually occurs in administrative decision
making is 'incrementalism' i.e. virtual continuation of
previous activities with few modifications. It reduces
political tensions and maintains stability. He says the past
activities and experiences are used by administrators to make
future decisions. He said policy makers accept the legitimacy
of existing policies due to uncertainty of the new.
He used two concepts to describe decision making in
- Marginal incrementalism: Limited, conservative policy
- Partisan mutual adjustment: Accomodation of divergent
views and interests in particular situation.
Lindbloom's theory is a high on coherence and simplicity.
Highly relative, pluralistic decision making system which has
compromised incrementalism and continual adjustment.
Etizioni's Mixed Scanning Model
Combination of both Incremental Model and Bounded Rationality
model. He agrees with Lindbloom's criticism of rational model
but says Incremental
Model has two drawbacks:
- discourages social innovation so is partisan
- Cant be applied to fundamental decisions.
Also he believes that pluralistic decision models are biased
because of pre existing inequalities in powers of
participating interests and individuals.
Dror's Optimal Model
Dror criticised incremental as unsatisfactory and
conservative. It creates gap between those with more power and
less power. Dror's optimal model is a combination of
economically rational model and extra rational model.
- Contains rational, extra rational elements
- Its basic rational to economic rational
- Concerned with meta policy making
- Contains inbuilt feedback
- Meta policy making: Processing values, reality,
problems, processes, design policy making system,
reallocate resources, determine policy making strategy.
- Policy making: Establish , prioritize goals, prepare
alternatives, identify best alternatives, decide whether
they are feasible.
- Post policy making: Execute policy, evaluate it, use
communication, feedback to all channels.
Dror pleads for adoption of best policy by a judicious
evaluation of goals, values, alternatives, costs, benefits
based on the maximum use of available information and