Chapter 24: THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Introduction to Motivation
Psychological process which energizes and activates individual
to achieve his formulated goals.
Types of Motivation theories:
- Content: What motivates people at work
? It is concerned with needs and drives that people have
and how these needs and drives are prioritised.
- Process: How motivation occurs?
Identifies variables that go into motivation and their
relationship with each other.
Theories of Motivation
Assume only economic factors to motivate. Thus people
produce more by working harder when adequate material
rewards are available and when there is strong fear of
punishment in case of non performance. This theory was
criticized due to over simplification, under estimation of
human motivation and neglect of socio psychological factors.
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs:
Human needs are arranged in a high to low manner. Humans
satisfy a particular need starting from lowest once fulfilled
he moves to the next. The urgency of a satisfied need
decreases and another unsatisfied one emerges.
He also said that satisfaction is a relative term and
emergence of needs is gradual not sudden. Hierarchy isn't
rigid , needs aren't watertight. Thus human needs are
interdependent, interrelated, overlapping, human behavior is
- Human needs don't conform to a hierarchy.
- Concept of self actualization is vogue, loose,
- Research of others suggested two needs i.e. deficiency
needs and growth needs.
- Can't be used by managers in practical situations to
make workers productive.
- No correlation between satisfaction of one set of needs
and activation of others.
- Theory helps in predicting human behavior on low to high
probability but not on absolute terms.
Herzberg's Two Factor Theory - Motivation and Hygiene
Motivators are related to nature of work
and intrinsic to the job itself. They are effective in
motivating the individual to superior performance, efforts.
Thus their absence doesn't cause dissatisfaction but
presence leads to satisfaction.
Hygiene factors are related to work
environment. They are related to peripheral aspects of job
so are extrinsic to job. They don't motivate person to do
better but work to prevent job dissatisfaction.
||relation with superior
||relation with peers, personal life, relationship
with subordinates, status, job security
Thus they cause dissatisfaction with their absence while
their presence doesn't bring satisfaction. As per Herzberg
man's basic needs are:
- Animal - Adam: Avoidance of pain from environment
- Human Abraham: Seeking growth from tasks.
- Factors producing job satisfaction are different from
those causing job dissatisfaction.
- Opposite of job satisfaction isn't dissatisfaction but
no job satisfaction.
- Similarly opposite of job dissatisfaction isn't job
satisfaction but no job dissatisfaction.
Classification of people in an organization:
|Motivated by nature of environment
||nature of task
|chronic, heightened dissatisfaction with various
aspects of job context
||high tolerance for hygiene factors
|over reaction with satisfaction on improvement in
|less satisfaction from achievement
|shows little interest in kind , quality of work he
||enjoys his task
|doesn't profit from experience
|short satisfaction if hygiene factors improved, over
reaction if hygiene factors not improved
||same satisfaction if hygiene factors improved but
mild discontent if not improved.
- Respondents of survey asked only extremes in satisfying
or unsatisfying causes.
- No control to maintain consistent evaluation by raters.
- Ignored situational variables.
- Ignored productivity, looked only at satisfaction.
|Emphasized that both lower, higher order needs
||Higher needs motivate, lower needs neutralize
||only white collar professionals
||prescriptive, also focus is on job enrichment not
enlargement i.e. not more tasks but increase in their
depth so wanted high autonomy, accountability,
responsibility in planning, execution, evaluation of
|general motivation is dealt with and applies to all
sections of the society
||work related motivation only
|only financial rewards motivate
||other motivating factors are present.