Chapter 25: ACCOUNTABILITY AND CONTROL
Accountability happens after a job is
complete. It is obligation of administrator to give
satisfactory account of their performance and the manner in
which they have exercised powers conferred on them.
accountability places four requirements on public
- Make laws as intended with minimum waste, delay.
- Exercise lawful, sensible administration discretion.
- Recommend new policy, reform in old.
- Enable citizen confidence in administration.
Responsibility refers to administrations
responsiveness to public will, accountability refers to
means of enforcing responsibility. Responsibility is
subjective, accountability is objective.
Control is performed simultaneously as
work is done. Accountability is enforced by means of
control. Purpose of control is to ensure that
administrator's exercise their powers , discretion within
the law. Instruments of administrative control are to
safeguard rights, liberties, without curbing power,
discretion of public servants.
Means of Control
- Parliamentary control: Parliament
control over administration is through questions,
discussions, motions, resolutions, financial control viz
audit, budget and through parliamentary committees.
- Law making: Parliament makes laws to
decide the structure, functions, procedures, powers of
- Question hour: MP's can ask questions
to ministers and civil servants are required to keep
records so answers can be made. Similarly Zero hour, half
hour discussions, short duration discussions, calling
attention motion, adjournment motion, no confidence
motion, censure motion.
Budgetary system: Departments have to get
demand for grants approved by the respective departmental
committees. The committees have to approve these grants
within a time frame before they go to parliament for vote.
Parliament can make cut motions to change these.
Audit System: CAG audits all accounts of
government entities and submits report to parliament. It
highlights improper, illegal, unwise, uneconomical
expenditure of government. Thus financial accountability to
government is secured.
Committees of Parliament:
- Public accounts committee: Examines CAG report on
finance and appropriation account.
- Estimates committee: Examines budget estimates after
- Committee on subordinate legislation: To report if
powers of delegated legislation are properly exercised by