Chapter 27: ADMINISTRATIONS OF THE WORLD
Introduction to administrative system in UK
British system is flexible, unitary, parliamentary government,
sovereignty of British parliament, no judicial review of laws,
rule of law and constitutional monarchy. Oldest constitution
of the world by is unwritten and is composed of political
conventions, charters [historical documents], statutes, common
laws, legal commentaries by experts. The judiciary can't
question laws made by the parliament as no judicial review is
there. Also British constitution can be amended by parliament
like an ordinary law.
- House of Lords: Lords, peers, nobles etc It represents
aristocracy and has 677 members. Membership is hereditary.
- House of commons: 659 members elected by the people.
British cabinet: Prime minister and his
cabinet but can be only from members of the House of Commons
unlike India where both houses are allowed. Dominant role of
PM in politics and administration. Leader of opposition is
an alternative PM. He enjoys status of a minister. Every
member of the government is shadowed by an opposition member
who critically watches the working of the department. PM and
ministers are appointed by the Queen and so PM can't remove
ministers at will.
British Civil Service:
Bureaucracy selected on merit by a qualifying exam followed
by individual and group interviews. Civil service boards
would then take candidates to a country house for an
extended interview session. Political
rights are enjoyed by lower rung bureaucrats and rights of
higher officers are restricted. Right to join unions is
there but no right to strike. For negotiations between
employee and employer Whitney councils are
present at national, department and local levels. These
councils have advisory, non binding recommendations. The
arbitration awards by tribunals which have to be
compulsorily consulted for grievance redress are final and
binding. Parliament can overrule them.
British Parliamentary Commissioner: He is
an ombudsman to look into grievances of citizens regarding
administration. Citizens can approach him only through their
British local government: Britain is
unitary and so parliament can abolish local governments or
create them for administrative convenience.
It is a written constitution with rigid amending procedure.
The system of government is unitary. The form of government
is quasi Presidential and quasi Parliamentary. President is
directly elected by the people for a five year term. He must
get absolute majority of the votes cast or else a second
election is held with only top two members can contest. No
formal age, education or qualifications is prescribed for
It is bicameral with lower house as National Assembly with
577 members and 5 year term and directly elected and upper
house called Senate with 321 members with 9 year term and
Constitutional council is an advisory body with non binding
opinion and has 9 members with 9 year term. It acts as a
judicial watchdog and ensures executive degrees and
parliament laws conform to constitution.
French Civil service:
Right to form associations and join politics is given to
them. They can also contest elections. Right to strike only
as a last resort. French civil service is recruited by open
competitive exam, pre entry and post entry training is also
French administrative courts
The actions made by a civil servant while performing
official acts can't be challenged in ordinary courts and
there are special administrative courts for that. they can
annul decisions made by officials. Their decisions can't be
Constitution is written and rigid. The Diet i.e.
legislature shall pass a proposal by 2/3rd majority and a
special public referendum is made. Then the Emperor can
promulgate such an amendment. The government is unitary with
provinces only have powers delegated by central government
Parliamentary government with PM as head of government and
Emperor as head of state. PM is the leader of the largest
party of the Diet. Emperor appoints PM and ministers on
advice of PM. PM can advice Diet to remove ministers any
time. Cabinet must resign if No Confidence motion is passed.
Majority members must be from Diet.
Supreme court is the court of last resort and can declare
laws as unconstitutional. The Judicial review is mentioned
in the constitution. Constitution is the Supreme Law of the
Land. It grants citizens large number of inviolable and
justifiable rights. Japanese constitution has renounced
right to war but can have self defense forces.
Bicameral legislature with Upper House with House of
Councillors - 252 members and 6 year term. Lower house has
512 members and 4 year term. Lower house is more powerful in
Bureaucracy is chosen on basis of merit.
Promotions too are made on examinations or by scrutinizing
past records. Once inducted the civil servant remains in the
same ministry for his entire career. The members of the
service can have associations except police personnel but
can't strike. Other rights too are restricted but can vote.